chemistry p1a

these cardsconsistof things i will need to know in the chemistry p1a exam.

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  • Created by: george
  • Created on: 01-03-09 14:41


copper ispurifiedby electrolysis

electrolysis is used to obtain very pure metals.

the copper is cu2+ so is drawn to the cathode and sludge is left at the anode (not the copper)

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ionic bonding

when anatomloses or gains an electron

if a atom gains a electron like ahalogenwould it becomesnegativelycharged and is drawn towardspositivelycharged atoms.

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whats inside an atom

there are

electrons who's mass is 1/200 electrons are negatively charged

neutrons who's mass is 1 areneutralhave no charge

and protons who's mass is also 1 arepositivelycharged

symbol name mass n.o atomic n.o electrons protons neutrons

na sodium 23 11 11 11 12

how to work out neutrons take away theatomicn.o from the mass n.o

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covalent bonding

covalent bonding is were instead of losing orgainingan aelectronthey share one

hydrogen has 1 electron so itsharesit with another hydrogen so they have a full shell

H2O does this O

sharesanelectron- H H-shares an electron

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more reactive going up

halogens are poisones

chlorine kills bacteria (used in pools)

iodine'sand antiseptic

chlorine reacts withpotassiumiodideto form potassium chloridebecausechlorine is more reactive and the iodide gets displaced

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aprecipitateis were to liquidsreactto for an insoluble solid (precipitate)

copper solution mixed with sodium hydroxide = blue

irom solution mixed with sodium hydroxide = sludgy red or sludgy green

zinc solution mixed with sodium hydroxide = white

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flame test

sodium= yellow/orangeflame

potassium= liliac

calcium= brick red

copper= blue-green

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hydration and dehrydration


something reacts with water to form a new thing


turns something containing water into water and something

e.g carbohydrates into carbon and water

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