Hydrocarbons Def. are organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon only.
Saturated hydrocarbons have single C-C bonds, such as propane.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons have double C-C bonds, such as methene.
Aliphatic h.c are when they are in a straight chain.
Alicyclic h.c are joined together in a ring structure.
The Functional Group is the part of the molecule that is respnsible for it's chemical properties and reactions. A saturated carbon chain has little reactivity. Molecules with the same functional group reactly similarly.
A Homologous series is a series of organic compounds with the same functional group and similar chemical properties that differ because each member differs by one carbon atom and 2 hydrogen atoms.
Alkanes are straight chained hydrocarbons. Each Carbon has a tetrahedral shape with a bond angle of 109.5 . With the formula of C H
Methane C H
Ethane C H
Propane C H
Butane C H
An alkane that has lost a hydrogen atom e.g CH is an alkyl group that are often know as 'R'.
Example 4-ethyl 3-MethylHeptane
Empirical Formula is the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound.
85.63% carbon, and 14.37% hydrogen.
Molecular Formula is the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule.
Example. A compound has an empirical formula of CH O and a relative molecular mass of 60.0
relative m.m / relative empirical formula=