Chemistry, Organic molecules.

Hydrocarbons, alkanes, alkenes, etc

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  • Created by: charlotte
  • Created on: 09-05-11 19:25


Hydrocarbons Def. are organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon only.

Saturated hydrocarbons have single C-C bonds, such as propane.

Unsaturated hydrocarbons have double C-C bonds, such as methene.

Aliphatic h.c are when they are in a straight chain.

Alicyclic h.c are joined together in a ring structure.

The Functional Group is the part of the molecule that is respnsible for it's chemical properties and reactions. A saturated carbon chain has little reactivity. Molecules with the same functional group reactly similarly.

A Homologous series is a series of organic compounds with the same functional group and similar chemical properties that differ because each member differs by one carbon atom and 2 hydrogen atoms. 

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Alkanes are straight chained hydrocarbons. Each Carbon has a tetrahedral shape with a bond angle of 109.5 . With the formula of C H

Methane C H

Ethane C H

Propane C H

Butane C H

An alkane that has lost a hydrogen atom e.g CH  is an alkyl group that are often know as 'R'. 

Example 4-ethyl 3-MethylHeptane

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Empirical Formula is the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound.


85.63% carbon, and 14.37% hydrogen. 

Molecular Formula is the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule.

Example. A compound has an empirical formula of CH O and a relative molecular mass of 60.0

relative m.m / relative empirical formula= 

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Displayed, Structural, and Skeletal.

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