Chemistry - Matter & particles

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Solids, Liquids, Gases

Solids - eg. metal, chocolate, wood. Regularly arranged particles, compacted, fixed volume, fixed shape, vibrating movement.

Liquids - eg. water, acid. Random movement, close together, connected but still fluid, quite fast moving particles, no fixed volume, adapt to container

Gases - eg. oxygen. Far apart, arranged randomly, fast moving, no fixed volume, fill a container.

Solid <--> gas - subliming, deposition

Gas <--> liquid - condensation, evaporating

Liquid<--> solid - freezing, melting

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The spreading out of particles in a gas/liquid from area of higher concentration to area of lower concentration.

In gas, lighter particles move faster. Gas evens out concentration.

In liquid - in cold water diffusion is slow, in hot water diffusion is fast

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Atoms, elements, compounds & mixutres

Atom - smallest particle that makes up an element

Element - substance made up of only one type of atom (found on periodic table)

Compound - when two substances are chemically bonded together. Made up of two or more types of atom.

Mixture - when two or more substances are mixed together, but not chemically bonded. 

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Methods of separation

Filtration - insoluble solids & soluble solids

Centrifuge - small amounts of solid held into suspension

Evaporation - soluble solids & liquids

Crystallisation - soluble substance contaminated with small impurities

Distillation - separate liquids from contaminants

Fractional distillation - separate 2 or more liquids with different boiling points

Chromatography - seperate soluble compounds from mixtures

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Centrifuge - tube is placed in centrifuge and spun at high speed, solid particles are forced to the bottom of the tube by resulting outward force. Liquid is decanted off.

Crystallisation - eg. CuSO4 (copper sulphate). If you cool solution slowly, you get big crystals. If you cool quickly, you get small crystals. 

Distillation - heat liquid so it evaporates and forms vapour. This goes into the condenser. The condenser should slope down into a beaker and as the vapour cools it will run down the condenser.

Fractional distillation - It is used to separate liquids. You can also do this by taking advantage of their boiling points.

Chromatography - eg. coloured ink. Rf value - Retention factor: is constant for a given compound in a given solvent/element.

Rf= y (distance travelled by spot)/x (distance travelled by solvent) always less than 1

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