- Yellow luminous- 200 C- easily visible- makes things black and sooty. Air hole is closed.
- Quiet blue- 400 C- Normal flame, most used- used for heating liquids. Air hole is slightly open.
- Precations- test tube is 1/5 full, hold test tube at a slant, never point in someone's direction, shake often, use anti- bumping granules.
- Roaring Blue- 500 C- used to heat things strongly- hard metals, never use on liquids! Air hole is fully open.
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- Chromatoghraphy- to separate different colours from one mixed colour.
- Can separate more than one colour at once.
- Also measures the solubility of a colour.
- Filtration- separates soluble and non-soluble substances. Or separates a non- slouble substance from a slovent (water). Residue is the solid left that has been left in the filter paper.
- Evaporation- soultion is heated by either sunlight or a bunsen, enabling you to obtain soluble substances from their solvent- often crystals are formed.
- Distillation- evaporation is the first step of this, however the slovent condenses in a liebig condenser or on a cold metal bar, then being collected in a beaker. This way you can obtain both the solute and solvent.
- Fractional Distiallation- allows ypu to seperate 2 liquids frome each other, by using their 2 different boiling points.
- Decantation- quick method to separate a solvent from a denser, heavy solute.
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Atoms & Elements
- Atom- smallest part of an element. Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons.
- Element- a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances. Elements are made of one type of atom. eg- oxygen
- Compound- two or more elements chemically combined. eg- carbon dioxide.
- Mixture- two or more elements or compounds not chemically combine- can be separated easily. eg- sea water.
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- Oxidation & Reduction- iron oxide + carbon = carbon dioxide + iron
- Metal reactions-
- Metal + oxygen = metal oxide
- Metal + water = metal hydroxide + hydrogen
- Metal + acid = metal salt + hydrogen
- Neutralisation reactions-
- Acid + alkali (base) = salt + water
- Carbonate + acid = salt + water + carbon dioxide.
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