Chemistry- Key equations, patterns and tips.

Key equations, patterns, rules and tips, covering-

  • The Bunsen Burner.
  • Separation techniques.
  • Atoms & Elements.
  • Reactions.
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Bunsen Burner

  • Yellow luminous- 200 C- easily visible- makes things black and sooty. Air hole is closed.
  • Quiet blue- 400 C- Normal flame, most used- used for heating liquids. Air hole is slightly open.
  • Precations- test tube is 1/5 full, hold test tube at a slant, never point in someone's direction, shake often, use anti- bumping granules.
  • Roaring Blue- 500 C- used to heat things strongly- hard metals, never use on liquids! Air hole is fully open.
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  • Chromatoghraphy- to separate different colours from one mixed colour.
  • Can separate more than one colour at once.
  • Also measures the solubility of a colour.
  • Filtration- separates soluble and non-soluble substances. Or separates a non- slouble substance from a slovent (water). Residue is the solid left that has been left in the filter paper.
  • Evaporation- soultion is heated by either sunlight or a bunsen, enabling you to obtain soluble substances from their solvent- often crystals are formed.
  • Distillation- evaporation is the first step of this, however the slovent condenses in a liebig condenser or on a cold metal bar, then being collected in a beaker. This way you can obtain both the solute and solvent.
  • Fractional Distiallation- allows ypu to seperate 2 liquids frome each other, by using their 2 different boiling points. 
  • Decantation- quick method to separate a solvent from a denser, heavy solute.
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Atoms & Elements

  • Atom- smallest part of an element. Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons.
  • Element- a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances. Elements are made of one type of atom. eg- oxygen
  • Compound- two or more elements chemically combined. eg- carbon dioxide.
  • Mixture- two or more elements or compounds not chemically combine- can be separated easily. eg- sea water.
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Chemical Reactions

  • Oxidation & Reduction- iron oxide + carbon = carbon dioxide + iron
  • Metal reactions-
  • Metal + oxygen = metal oxide
  • Metal + water = metal hydroxide + hydrogen
  • Metal + acid = metal salt + hydrogen
  • Neutralisation reactions-
  • Acid + alkali (base) = salt + water
  • Carbonate + acid = salt + water + carbon dioxide.
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