- Family of organic compounds.
- Contain the Hydroxyl group.
- Names end in 'OL.'
- First part of the name same as alkanes.
CH3OH = Methanol.
C2H5OH = Ethanol.
- Alcohols have high boiling points relative for their weight.
- They can form Hydrogen bonds like water can.
- Alcohols are ORGANIC.
- Alcohols burn in air, they need slightly less oxygen as they already have some in them.
- Alcohols react with sodium to form white crystaline alkoxides.
- Family of Hydrocarbons.
- Made of only Carbon and Hydrogen.
- Only have single bonds.
- All the names end in 'ANE.'
- The number of carbons in the molecule gives the first part of the name.
- Bonds STONG.
- Not reactive.
CH4 = Methane.
C2H6 = Ethane.
C3H8 = Propane.
C4H10 = Butane.
- When burnt always get gas.
- Organic acids
- They are Proton donors.
- The most common type of organic acid.
- Participate in Hydrogen Bonding.
- Carboxylic acids then to have higher boiling points than water, not only because of their increased surface area but to form stabilised dimers.
- Weak acids.
- Reactions convert Carboxylic acids into esters, amides, carboxylic salts, acid chlorides and alcohols.
- Chemical compounds.
- Creates when reacting an Oxoacid and a Hydroxyl compound. (Alcohol and Phenol.)
- Derived from Carboxylic acids or Alcohol.
- Esters are formed by condensending and acid with an alcohol.
- Esters with a low molecular weight are commonly used as fragrances and found in oils and pheromones.
- Low-ish melting point.
Energy Transfer in Reactions.
- When a chemical reaction happens energy is usually transferred to or from the surroundings.
- Exothermic Reaction = Energy is given out usually by heat. Eg- Burning fuels, Respiration, when water is added to Copper Sulphate.
- Endothermic Reaction = Energy is taken in, often as heat, from surroundings. Eg- Photosynthesis, dissolving some Salts in Water, Thermal decompostion.
- Catalysts are substances that change the rate of reactions without being used up.
- Most Catalysts speed up reactions and work by lowering the activation energy.
- Catalysts that slow reactions down are called Inhibitors, they work by increasing the activation energy.
- Enzymes are biological Catalysts. Enzymes work best at specific temperatures and stop working at higher temperatures.
Bond Energies and Chromatography.
- Measures the bond strength in a chemical bond.
- Bond strength can be directly related to the bond length/ bond distance.
- A set of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures.
- Preparative and Analyitical.
- Most chemical reactions are considered irreversible.
- Reversible reactions occur when the backwards reaction takes place relatively easily under certain conditions. The product turns back into the reactants.
- Biochemical reactions are normally reversible.
- Red blood cells, oxygen binds to hameoglobin to create, oxyhaemoglobin.
Dynamic equilibrium = can only take place in a closed system otherwise the products would escape.
- Ethanol is an alcohol.
- It is a flammable, clear liquid.
- It's also used as fuel.
- Ethanol is a straight-chain alcohol.
Molecular formula = C2H50H
- Used as a solvent.