Crude oil is a mixture or loads of different Chemical Compounds, it is not much use as each substance has a different boiling point. To make Crude oil use full we separate these Compounds into different Boiling Points. We separate them with Distillation. Crude oil is made of loads of different Hydro-Carbons, these are made of Carbon and Hydrogen. Most a Alkanes.
Alkanes are Saturated Hydrocarbons. They contain as many Hydrogen's as Carbons can hold.
The length of a Hydrocarbon chain affects the Boiling Point, Viscosity, Volatility and how Flammable it is. The shorter they are the lower the boiling point, the higher the Flammability, the higher the Viscosity and Volatility.
We separate Crude Oil by feeding it into a Fractional Column. The Column is kept very hot at the bottom so the Compounds with high boiling points only go a few levels up and the ones with low boiling points so they float to the top. Top of tower=small molecules.
Cracking = Breaking large molecules into small ones.
Biofuels are fuels that are made from Plant and Animal products.
Solid waste which is produced can feed animals.
Biodiesel will become cheaper if Diesel runs out.
It is less harmful to plants
Burns easily are reduces particles released
Biodiesel freezes quicker
People worried about destruction of habitats.
Ethanol is made from Sugar from Sugarcane which is Fermented using yeast.
*Hydrogen is the most Abundent Elemenet in the Universe.
A kilogram of Hydrogen produces the same amount of energy as a gallon of Gasoline.
It has the most Combustion energy per pound so its the most energy efficient.