Chemistry Definitions

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A compound containing carbon and hydrogen only.

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Homologous Series

A series of organic compounds with the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2.

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Functional Group

A group of atoms that are responsible for the characteristic reactions of a compound

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Contains single C-C bonds

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Containing at least one carbon to carbon multiple bond

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Empirical Formula

The simpliest whole number ratio of atoms of each elements present in a compound

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Molecular Formula

The actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule

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Structural Isomer

Compounds with the same molecular formula but with a different structural formulae

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Compounds with the same structural formula but with a different arrangement of atoms in space

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E/Z Isomerism

An example of stereoisomerism in terms of restricted rotation about a double bond and the requirement for two different groups to be attached to each carbon of the C--C group

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Cis-Trans Isomerism

A special case of E/Z isomerism in which two of the substituent groups are the same

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Catalytic Cracking

The breaking of a long chained saturated hydrocarbon to form more useful alkanes (shorter chained) and alkenes.

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A fuel that is derived from recently living material such as plants or the waste of animals

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A reactive species with an unpaired electron

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Homolytic Fisson

The breaking of a covalent bond where the shared pair of electrons are split equally forming two radicals

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Heat is given out to the surroundings (the reactants loose energy)

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Heat is taken from the surrounding, the reactants gain energy

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Activation Energy

the minimum enery required to start a reaction by the breaking of bonds

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Standard Conditions

A pressure of 1 atmosphere, a stated temperature usually 25^c and a concentration of 1 mole. 

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Standard Enthalpy Change of Reaction

The enthalpy change that accompanies a reaction in the molar quantities expressed in the chemical equation (under standard conditions, all reactants and products are in their standard states)

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Standard Enthalpy Change of Formation

The standard enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a compound is formed from its constituent elements (in their standard states under standard conditons)

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Standard Enthalpy Change of Combustion

The standard enthalpy change that takes place when 1 mole of a compound reacts completely with oxygen ( all products are in their standard states under standard conditons)

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Average Bond Enthalpy

The average enthalpy change is required to break 1 mole of a gaseous covalent bond by homolytic fission.

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Speeds up a reaction without being consumed in the overall reaction.

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