Chemistry C7

The stages involved in producing chemicals

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Producing chemicals

1. Raw materials are converted into feedstocks - Nutural substances e.g. crude oil, natrual gaswhich are usually prurified. Feddstocks are actually reactants.

2. Synthesis - The feedstock are converted by chemistry into products. the conditions have to be carefullyt controlled.

3. The products are seperated - chemical reactions usually produce the chemicals you want plus some additional products (by-products), you may have some left over reactants. Everything is seperated so it can be delt with in different ways.

4. Purity of the product is monitored - Even once it has been sepereated there are still some other products left, so the purity has to be monitored to make sure its between certain levels. Different iundustries need different levels of purity.

5. By-products and waste are delt with - Where possible these products are sold as they can sometimes be used in other reactions, if the reaction is exothermic there may be heat waste. Waste products can be carefully disposed of but they have to make sure it is in line with the law.

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Producing chemicals 2

The 8 Key q's about sustainablitly:

1. Will the raw materials run out?

2. How good is the atom economy? - how much of the mass of reactant ends up as a useful product?

3. What do I do with the waste products?

4. What are the energy costs?

5. Will it damage the environment?

6. What are the health and safety risks?

7. Are there any benefits or risks to society?

8. Is it profitable?

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