Chemistry C5

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Air Composition and Percentages

Composition

  • Nitrogen
  • Oxygen
  • Argon
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Water Vapour

Percentages

  • N - 78%
  • O - 21%
  • A - 1%
  • CD - 0.04%
  • WV - varies
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Covalent Bonding

  • Atoms can gain a full outer shell by sharing their outer electrons
  • This happens between non-metal atoms and is called a covalent bond
  • The covalent bonding arises from the electrostatic attraction between the nuclei of the atoms and the electrons shared between them
  • This is stronger than the repulsion force between the two nuclei
  • The attraction holds the covalent bond together
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Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding involves a metal and a non-metal. The metal atom gives electron(s) a way to become a positively charged ion. The non-metal gains electron(s) to become a negatively charged ion. The ions are then held together by the force of attraction between the oppositely charged ions.

Ionic Substances

  • opposite ions attract
  • the ions attract these opposites from all directions
  • they create an ionic lattice

Ionic and Covalent - similarities

  • bond to make fulll outer shell
  • don't conduct heat well
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Ionic Equation example

Pb2+ (aq) + NO3- (aq) -> Pb(NO3)2 (s)

Li + (aq) + Cl- (aq) -> LiCl (s)

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Giant Ionic Structures

  • Ionic - gain or lose electrons, non-metal and metal ions
  • Soluble
  • Conducts electricity and heat
  • High melting and boiling point
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Earths Spheres

Spheres from inside going outwards

  1. Inner core
  2. Outer core
  3. Mantle
  4. Crust
  5. Lithosphere
  6. Hydrosphere
  7. Atmosphere
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Definitions

Solution

formed when a solid, liquid or gas dissolves in a solvent

Soluble

when a solute dissolves in a solvent

Insoluble

when a solute does not dissolve in a solvent

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How to know which ion it is

Calcium or Zinc

  • Calcium is insoluble in excess NaOH
  • Zinc is soluble in excess NaOH

Sulphate ion

  • React it with barium ions

Carbonate ion

  • React it with dilute acid
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How to work out percentage mass

Mass of question / total mass x 100 = percentage mass

Example

121 / 160 x 100 = 70%

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Definitions and Atoms keyword

Malleable

capable of being hammered or pressed into shape without breaking or cracking

Ductile

capable of being drawn into thin wires or sheets without breaking

Atom keywords

  • reactive
  • unreactive
  • protons
  • neutrons
  • electrons
  • energy
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