CHEMISTRY C3

revision for test.

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ISOTOPES

LOB<3

an isotope of an element has the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons.

e.g

8p, 10e, 8n.

8p tells me i have 8 protons, i look up an element with 8 and the bottom.

-this tells me its oxygen.

-add p+n>mass

     8p+8n=16.

-i know for a balanced atom, i need the same amount of electrons as protons.In this case i have 2 extra electrons 2- so my atom an iron it has a change> O-2

 


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Ionic Bonding

 

-all non metals are negatively charged.

-all metals are postively charged.

 

A transfer of electrons.

i must make sure i show the electronic structure.

 

BETWEEN METALS AND NON-METALS.

 

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Covalent Bonding

 

The sharing of electrons.

-between non-metals and non metals.

 

-MAGIC NUMBER 8.

e.g.

CO2> O=C=O

 



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Metallic Bonding

OUTER SHELL=delocalised.

-metallic bonding happens between metals and metals

-tight packed structure.

-it forms a crystal lattice.

MALLEABLE-GOOD CONDUCTOR OF HEAT AND ELECTRICITY-AUCTILE-SONOROUS.

 

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The Periodic Table

 

groups=down

periods=across

designed by mendeleev-1869-1911.He designed it in positions rated by there reactions.

NOW IN ORDER OF INCREASING ATOMIC NUMBER.

-an element only has one capotal letter and no number

-a compound contains atoms of different elements together.

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Group 1

LOB<3

-oxidation is loss of electrons&reductions is a gain of elecrons.

flame colours:

lithium:red

sodium:orange

potassium:lilac

-reactions get more violent as you go down the group.

equation>Fr...2Fr+2H20>>2FrOH+H2


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Halogens

-as you go down rhe group the reactivity decreases.


-THE GROUP PUSHS OUT THE OTHER ELEMENT BECAUSE THEY ARE MORE REACTIVE.


e.g.NaBr-Cl >> because Br is more reactive.

 



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Electrolysis

Electrolysis>electricity spltting up.

CATHODE-NEGATIVE

ANODE-POSTIVE

 

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