Chemistry: Analysis

Covers chemical analysis for different substances.

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Tests for Substances

OXYGEN

HYDROGEN

CARBON DIOXIDE

 CHLORINE

AMMONIA

WATER

COPPER CARBONATE

ZINC CARBONATE

ALKENES

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OXYGEN: relights a glowing splint

HYDROGEN: pop test, makes a squeaky pop

CARBON DIOXIDE: turns limewater milky

CHLORINE: turns damp litmus paper red then bleaches it

AMMONIA: turns damp litmus paper blue

WATER: turns anhydrous copper sulphate blue

COPPER CARBONATE: turns from green to black if heated in an ignition tube

ZINC CARBONATE: turns from white to yellow if heated in an ignition tube

ALKENES: decolourizes bromine water

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Tests for Ionic Compounds (1)

CARBONATE

AMMONIUM

NITRATE

SULPHATE 

CHLORIDE

BROMIDE

FLUORIDE

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CARBONATE: add acid, pass the gas through limewater which turns it milky

AMMONIUM: add sodium hydroxide, warm, turns damp litmus paper blue

NITRATE: add sodium hydroxide, warm, add aluminium powder, also turns damp litmus paper blue

SULPHATE: add hydrochloric acid and barium chloride, forms a white precipitate

CHLORIDE: add nitirc acid and silver nitrate, milky white

BROMIDE: add nitirc acid and silver nitrate

FLUORIDE: add nitirc acid and silver nitrate

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Tests for Ionic Compounds (2): Flame Tests

LITHIUM

SODIUM

POTASSIUM

CALCIUM

BARIUM

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Method for all: dip a wire loop into hydrochloric acid, into the solid compound, place into the flame and observe

LITHIUM: orange/red flame

SODIUM: yellow/orange flame

POTASSIUM: lilac flame

CALCIUM: brick-red flame

BARIUM: apple-green flame

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Tests for Ionic Compounds (3)

ALUMINIUM

CALCIUM

MAGNESIUM

COPPER

IRON (II)

IRON (III)

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Method for all: add sodium hydroxide

ALUMINIUM: produces a white precipitate

CALCIUM: becomes milky

MAGNESIUM: goes cloudy

COPPER: produces a blue precipitate

IRON (II):goes dark green

IRON (III): goes brick red

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