chemistry 1

This is revision crad for module 1 of chemistry in the triple science catergory 

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Compounds - name and formulae

A compound is when two or more elements react in a chemical reaction, they chemically bond together.

hydrogen + oxygen = water

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properties of elements and compounds

When you mix certain elements together they become less reactive. This is how we are able to eat salt which is sodium chloride on our chips because as they became a compound the lost some of their elements and properties�

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Elements, mixtures and compounds

1. The element is the single property.

2. the mixture is when two elements are mixed together but not bonded�they are able to be separated.

3. Steps to make a compound is the process at which the two elements are able to react with each other e.g. to make iron sulphate you heat the two elements.

4. The compound is the final step of the experiment and the result. This is when the two elements cannot be separated.

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Dmitri Mendeleev

He was the first to order the elements in the periodic table in order of atomic number instead of mass.

He left spaces where new elements could be placed.

His idea was accepted when a new element was found an matched his patterns.

John Newlands was the first to get an idea of�the�periodic table but slipped up when he put them in order of mass and not atomic number.�

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Simple compounds

Simple compounds are when you just add 'ide' to the end.�

Examples�

Magnesium + oxygen = magnesium oxide�

Sodium + chlorine = sodium chloride�

oxygen + iron = iron oxide�

Many elements contain more than 2 elements�

If there are 2 elements plus oxygen, the ending of the other non-metal usually changes to 'ate'�

Examples

nickle+sulfur+oxygen = nickle sulfate�

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Ionic bonding

Oppositely charged ions attract negatively and positive charged ions.�

Metals react with non-metals,�Metals LOSE electrons Non-metals GAIN electrons

Ions metals = positive ions ��non-metals = Negative

Attractions of these charges forms the ionic bond. Atoms gain/lose elctrons to obtain FULL shells�

Noble gas electronic structure is more stable e.g. 2 or 2,8 or 2,8,8�

Easy to lose/gain 3 electrons or less.

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ionic bonding formulae

Symbol � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �Na � � � F�

Ion charge � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 1+ � � �1-�

Balance the number of ions: � 1 sodium is needed for each fluorine ion

Ratio of ions � � � � � � � � � � � � � �1 � �: � 1

Formula � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � NaF�

Symbol � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �Al � � � Br

Ion charge � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 3+ � � �1-�

Balance the number of ions: � 3 bromide ions are needed for each aluminium ion

Ratio of ions � � � � � � � � � � � � � �3 � : � 1�

Formula � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � AlBr3

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Making compounds

Valency is how many arms an atom has�

Valency is also the same as the group number the element is in

A compound is two or more atoms that are chemically bonded

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Extraction and displacement of metals

Metals come from deep in the ground and people use mining to get and extract it.

An ore is a compound where you find one piece/type of metal. Most metals are too reactive to exist on their own in the ground, Instead they exist combined with other elements (typically oxygen or sulphur) as compounds called ores. A few metals are so unreactive that they exist uncombined as pure metals e.g. gold and silver

You can get metals by mining,tunneling, digging, quarrying, reduction reactions(chemical) and electrolysis (electricity)

When a metal higher in the reactivity in the series takes place of a metal lower in the reactivity series in a reaction.�

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the reactivity series

Please Stop leaving carrots my annoying crazy zebra tries items like cake sugar and grass (( Potassium sodium lithium calcium magnesium aluminium carbon zinc tin iron lead copper silver gold ))
Metals above carbon must be extracted using electrolysis, below carbon can be extracted from reduction using carbon coke or charcoal
Gold silver and potassium often don't have to be extracted as they occur naturally on their own (native)

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Redox reactions

A redox reaction is when there is a reduction and an oxidation, which take place in the same reaction
Magnesium + copper oxide >> magnesium oxide + copper

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