An ionic bond is the strong forces of attraction holding together oppositely charged ions.
Ionic Bonding Properties:
- They have high melting points and boiling points
- They dissolve to form solutions that conduct electricity
- They conduct electricity when molten
A covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons
An atom makes one covalent bond for each electron needed to build its outer shell
Properties Of Small Covalent Molecules
- Low melting and boiling points (weak forces between molecules)
- Insulators of heat and electricity (no charged particles)
Examples : oxygen, nitrogen, methane, ammonia
Only weak forces between molecules so only a little energy (heat) is required to overcome the forces and allow the molecules to seperate.
Properties Of Giant Covalent Molecules
- Made from carbon atoms only
- High melting and boiling points as melting/boiling point requires a large amount of strong covalent bonds to be broken, this required a large amount of energy.
- Very hard and strong due to large number of covalent bonds
- Insulator of electricity (no charged particles)