Chemistry C2 Additional Science

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Ionic Bonding

An ionic bond is the strong forces of attraction holding together oppositely charged ions.

Ionic Bonding Properties:

  • They have high melting points and boiling points
  • They dissolve to form solutions that conduct electricity
  • They conduct electricity when molten
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Covalent Bonding

A covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons 

An atom makes one covalent bond for each electron needed to build its outer shell

 Properties Of Small Covalent Molecules

  • Low melting and boiling points (weak forces between molecules)
  • Insulators of heat and electricity (no charged particles)

Examples : oxygen, nitrogen, methane, ammonia

Only weak forces between molecules so only a little energy (heat) is required to overcome the forces and allow the molecules to seperate.

 Properties Of Giant Covalent Molecules

  • Made from carbon atoms only
  • High melting and boiling points as melting/boiling point requires a large amount of strong covalent bonds to be broken, this required a large amount of energy.
  • Very hard and strong due to large number of covalent bonds
  • Insulator of electricity (no charged particles)

Example: Diamond

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thank you for that abrar anwar

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