Chemistry Unit 2~ Bonding,Structure and Properties of matter

  • Created by: Tharv
  • Created on: 12-11-18 17:45

Ionic Bonding

-Involves the tranfer of electrons between Metals and non-metals

-To create an Ion, Atoms either lose or gain  electrons.

-Electrons don't vanish or appear, they get transfered to one another creating the ions.

-Positive and negative ions > attracted by Electrostatic Attraction.

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Ionic Compounds

-Have a structure- Giant Ionic Lattice.

- Ions form a tightly packed Lattice where all strong electrostatic forces between them are in all directiins.

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Properties of Ionic Formula

-Strong forces > high melting and boiling points.

-When solid, can't conduct electricity (until they melt- ions are free moving.

-Dissolve easily in water > ions are free moving.

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Convalescent Bonding

-Atoms share elements

-Bonds between Non-metals and Metals > Gain a full outer shell.

- Bonds are very strong.

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Simple Covalent Structrues

- Very strong

-Intermolecular forces between molecules are weak.

    > Very low melting and boiling point.

    >Usually liquids/gases room temp.

    > Bigger molecule get > strong the intermol. forces get.

    > More energy is needed to break them. 

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Polymers

-Made from small molecules

-Covalently joined to form long chains of repeating Molecules e.g Polyethane.

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Properties of Polymers

- Intermolecular forces between are large

- Means it takes alot more energy to break them apart.

- Forces are still weaker than ionic or covalent bonding.

- Lower boiling/ melting points than ionic and giant covalent structures

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Giant Covalent Structures.

-Strong Covalent Bonds

-High melting/boiling points, need lots of energy to break them down.

- Don't conduct electricity except Graphite

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Metallic Bonding

- Decolonised Electrons (Free moving)

- Strong electrostatic forces between the metal ion (+) and shared electrons (-)

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Properties of Metallic Bonding

- High melting and boiling points > Solid at room temp.

- Delconised electrons conduct electricity and good conductors of heat.

- Layers of atoms can slide over each other > Can be shaped.

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Alloys

- Mixture of atoms.

- Stronger than metals

    > Different sized atoms in their structure 

    > Atoms distort layers so they can't slide over eachother.

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Allotopes of Carbon

- Structually different forms of the same element in the same state.

- For e.g Carbon

Graphene

- Thin sheet of carbon

- Very strong

- Incredibly light

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Grpahene

Graphene

- Thin sheet of carbon

- Very strong

- Incredibly light

- Conduct electricity with decolonised electrons

- Good for you in electronics

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Fullerenes

- Molecules of Carbon

- Carbon  > mainly arranged in hexagons

- Can be used to deliver drugs in body

- Can form nanotubes

- They have properties that make them useful in electronics.

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