Chemistry Pyrotechnics Revision

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Metal Oxide Metal hydroxide Metal Carbonate
-radium oxide -magnesium hydroxide - nickel carbonate
-indium oxide -zinc hydroxide - tin carbonate

A compound is a substance in which two or more ELEMENTS are CHEMICALLY BONDED
A mixture is a substance in which two or more elements are SIMPLY MIXED.

Based on the number of elements present in a compound it can be 1)A SIMPLE COMPOUND if it consists only of TWO elements, the names I'd simple compounds end in IDE in the exception of the compounds containing hydroxide 2) A COMPLEX COMPOUND if it consists of more than two elements, complex compounds therefore consist of RADICALS.

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Substances= Elements,Compounds and Mixtures
Elements and Compounds are pure.
Elements= Metals and Non-metals
Compounds= Acids, Neutrals and Bases
Mixtures= Air, Seawater,Rocks and Crude oil.
Acids= hydrochloric,sulphuric and nitric
Neutral= water, salt and hydrocarbon
Bases= metal oxide,metal hydroxide and metal carbonate

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Hydroxide OH 1 Nitrate NO3 1 Carbonate CO3 1

Sulphate SO4 2 Phosphate PO4 3 Ammonium NH4 1

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What is a Chemical Reaction?

It is a process where a new substance is formed. The substances you start with are called reactants and the the new substances formed are called products. The elements in the REACTANTS are the same as this in the PRODUCTS. The elements are simply REARRANGED during a chemical reaction. The total mass of the REACTANTS is the same as the total mass of the PRODUCTS as no atoms disappear. During a chemical reaction the particles of the REACTANTS collide, only those with enough energy react to form PRODUCTS. The tell tale signs of a chemical reaction are bubbling, fizzing and colour change.

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Is Burning a Chemical Reaction?

When a pure substance burns, the particles of the pure substance reacts with the particles of oxygen. The new substances forms will be the oxide of the elements in the pure substance that is being burnt.

Sodium + Oxygen = sodium oxide

Hydrocarbon + Oxgen = hydrogen oxide (water) + carbon dioxide

Is burning a chemical reaction?
Justify your answer:

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When things burn they react with OXYGEN from the air. When a metal BURNS it forms a new chemical called an OXIDE. When magnesium burns it forms a chemical called MAGNESIUM oxide. Fuels are chemicals, which can be burned to give HEAT. Wood, coal, petrol and natural gas are all fuels. The FIRE TRIANGLE tells us that all fired need FUEL, HEAT AND OXYGEN. If one of these is removed or runs out, the fire will go out.

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A fuel is a substance which reacts with oxygen in the air to release energy. It contains stored chemical energy. Eg, crude oil (hydrocarbons),paper, wood,coal,natural gas and wax.
In burning fuels all we are doing is reacting a substance with oxygen, usually to release heat energy as well as a carbon dioxide and water if the fuel is a hydrocarbon. This is called COMBUSTION.
When something burns, chemical bonds between atoms in the fuel are broken and new bonds are formed with oxygen
The energy released comes from the new bonds forming.

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Main Types of Chemical Reactions

1) elements reacting with elements
2) elements reacting with compounds A DISPLACEMENT REACTION
3) compounds reacting with compounds NEUTRALISATION AND PRECIPITATION
4) compounds decomposing

When a metal reacts with water hydrogen is always given off. The other product will be either a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide.
Metal + Water + Metak Hydroxide + Hydrogen

1) sodium + water = sodium hydroxide + hydrogen
2) calcium + water = calcium hydroxide + hydrogen
3) aluminium + water = aluminium hydroxide + hydrogen

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