Warm with acidified Potassium dichromate (VI).
Orange to Green -
- primary or secondary alcohol
Shake with Bromine Water.
Yellow solution decolourised -
White precipitate also formed -
Warm with aqueous sodium/potassium hydroxide.
Acidify with dilute nitric acid.
Add aqueous silver nitrate.
Phosphorous (V) Chloride.
Steamy white fumes that turn damp blue litmus paper red
- O--H group in alcohols and carboxylic acids.
2,4 dinitrophenyl hydrazine solution.
- C=O group in aldehydes and ketones.
Boil with Fehling's or Benedict's solution.
Blue solution gives red precipitate:
Warm with ammoniacal silver nitrate (tollen's reagent).
Sodium or Potassium Carbonate, or Hydrocarbonate solution.
- Carboxylic acid.
Add a small piece of Sodium.
Effervescence, Sodium dissolves and a white solid forms.
- Alcohol, Phenol or Carboxylic acid.
Warm with carboxylic acid and a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid.
Ester smell (glue like).
Sodium Nitrite and dilute Hydrochloric acid, followed by an alkaline solution of Phenol in ice cold conditions.
- Aromatic amine.
Iodine in Alkaline solution.
Pale yellow precipitate:
- Methyl, Ketone, Ethanal
- Methyl secondary Alcohol or Ethanol.