Chemical tests

The chemical tests you need to know for C2 AS Chemistry :)

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Warm with acidified Potassium dichromate (VI).

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Orange to Green -

  • primary or secondary alcohol
  • aldehyde.
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Shake with Bromine Water.

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Yellow solution decolourised -

  • alkene

White precipitate also formed -

  • phenol.
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Warm with aqueous sodium/potassium hydroxide.

Acidify with dilute nitric acid.

Add aqueous silver nitrate.

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White precipitate

  • C--Cl

Cream precipitate

  • C--Br

Yellow precipitate

  • C--I.
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Phosphorous (V) Chloride.

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Steamy white fumes that turn damp blue litmus paper red

  • O--H group in alcohols and carboxylic acids.
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2,4 dinitrophenyl hydrazine solution.

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Orange precipitate-

  • C=O group in aldehydes and ketones.
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Boil with Fehling's or Benedict's solution.

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Blue solution gives red precipitate:

  • aldehyde.
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Warm with ammoniacal silver nitrate (tollen's reagent).

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Silver mirror

  • Aldehyde.
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Sodium or Potassium Carbonate, or Hydrocarbonate solution.

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Effervescence (fizzing)

  • Carboxylic acid.
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Add a small piece of Sodium.

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Effervescence, Sodium dissolves and a white solid forms.

  • Alcohol, Phenol or Carboxylic acid.
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Warm with carboxylic acid and a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid.

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Ester smell (glue like).

  • Alcohol.
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Sodium Nitrite and dilute Hydrochloric acid, followed by an alkaline solution of Phenol in ice cold conditions.

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Orange precipitate:

  • Aromatic amine.
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Iodine in Alkaline solution.

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Pale yellow precipitate:

  • Methyl, Ketone, Ethanal
  • Methyl secondary Alcohol or Ethanol.
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