Charles: The Long Parliament, 1640-42

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The Long Parliament 1640-1642:

  • MPs were angry over abuses in the Personal rule.
  • Wanted to reform Charles to stop any Personal rule in the future. 
  • November 1640, Scottish have took over northern England.
  • Parliament hate Charles for his relgious policies, tax and attacks on Parliamentary privelige.
  • Radical Puritans now in Parliament:
    • John Pym. 
    • Henry Vane.
    • John Hampden.
    • Earl of Warwick
    • Earl of Bedford.

BREAKDOWN OF RELATIONS BETWEEN KING AND PARLIAMENT, 1640-41:

  • Earl of Bedford = attempted to settle conflict.
  • Would bridge the gap between King and Parliament via...
  • Abolish financial aspect of Personal Rule and place MPs in Charles' Privy Council.
  • Died on May 1641, made chances for peace harder.
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Impeaching Charles' key ministers:

  • Parliament knew Wentworth could only help Charles = absolutist.
  • MPs targetted Wentworth as he was seen dangerous and a scapegoat.
  • Targetted 'Evil Councillors' instead of directly attacking the King.
  • But MPs = Split on how to punish Wentworth, e.g. Bedford wanted him imprisoned, Warwick wanted him executed.
  • Novermber 1640, Parliament first plan was to impeach Wentworth for wanting to use an Irish army.
  • Wanted to impeach him to force King to accpet reform as he had none of his advisers.
  • Removing the councillors would allow him to be replaced by Pym and Bedford.

BILL OF ATTAINDER, 1641:

  • Bedford disagreed to want Wentworth executed without trial.
  • But Scottish wouldn't make peace until he was dead.
  • Pym told rumours of an Army Plot, made things worse, thought Charles would rescue Wentworth and Dissolve Parliament.
  • Pym wanted Wentworth gone quick as he helped the Scottish Covenants = also treason.
  • Wentworth was executed on May 1641, Charles less wanted to negotiate peace now.
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Role of Pym:

  • Pym wanted to remove Charles evil councillors, no chance of Charles restoring absolutism and a strong Protestant country.
  • Protestation oath = Catholicism and absolutism were linked, to prevent absolutism = strong Protestantism.
  • To achieve these aims he had to:
    • Impeach Laud and Wentworth
    • Help the Scottish Covenantiers occupy Scotland.
    • Making the King transer key prerogatives to Parliament 
    • Use Parliamentary finance to pressure Charles to compromise.
  • All this worried Moderates and split Parliament.
  • Parliament was becoming too radical.
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Growing divisions in the Long Parliament:

ROOT AND BRANCH PETITION, 1641:

  • Made up by radical Puritans.
  • Would end episcopacy, Bishops governing the Church.
  • Would replace Bishops with lay patronage and more local control over Churches. 
  • Many were divided on what to replace Laudianism with.
  • Many say removing bishops as dismantling the order of society and structure of the Church.
  • Exclusion bill even wanted to remove the Bishops from the Lords.

TRIENNIAL ACT: 

  • February 1641, Ship Money was abolished without Parliamentary consent.
  • Charles also had to call Parliament every 3 years and shoud last 50 days. 
  • If he failed, Parliament was call itself.
  • Aimed to prevent Personal rule.
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Growing divisions in the Long Parliament:

EMERGENCE OF A ROYALIST PARTY:

  • May 1641, Bedford dies and Pym needs other ways to solve problems between King and Parliament.
  • Caused division that if stopped, may have prevented civil war.
  • Division was caused because...
    • MPs were united of preventing the Personal Rule but divided on how to prevent it.
    • Bill of Attainder was too extreme and constitutionally dangerous.
    • Religious issues like the role of Bishops led to more division.
  • Moderates were scared of radicals like Pym.
  • Parliament taking over royal prerogative threatened nobles, gentry who needed the King to help them. 
  • Charles could only keep a moderate Protestant Church, law and order etc.

10 PROPOSITIONS, 1641:

  • June 1641, Parliament became more radical.
  • Controlled who was in the Privy council.
  • Controlled who was around the Queen.
  • Controlled relgious education of Royal children.
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Growing divisions in the Long Parliament:

OCTOBER 1641 INCIDENT:

  • Parliament set out to spy on Charles due to untrust.
  • Charles was in Scotland whilst there were rumours of a Royalist plot to kidnap Scottish Covenants.
  • Wanted to ally with the Scots and if he got their support, he may attack Parliament.
  • But this rumour ruined any chance of compromise as Charles went to the Scottish Parliament with an army.

OCTOBER / NOVEMBER, IRISH REBELLION,1641:

  • Catholics rebelled against Protestant landowners. 
  • Catholic killings were exagerated .
  • Thought this was the 2nd Army Plot of Charles.
  • Charles needs an army to suppress this Irish rebellion.
  • But there = division over who commands it, King or Parliament.
  • Divides Moderates and Radicals again.
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Growing divisions in the Long Parliament:

THE GRAND REMONSTRANCE, NOVEMBER 1641:

  • A direct attack on Charles.
  • All of Charles' wrong doings since 1625. 
  • Showed why Charles couldn't be trusted with an army.
  • Timed before the King returned from Scotland.
  • There was a division on whether to publish this.
  • The vote on this was passed by 159-148, this was split division and MPs left Parliament because of radicalism. 
  • Royalists wanted the King to control army.
  • Radicals wanted Parliament to control army.

THE MILITIA BILL, DECEMBER 1641:

  • Haselrig introduced this to remove King's power over trained bands and give Parliament power to appoint commanders.
  • This would control the armed forced to use in Ireland.
  • This again directly attacked Charles prerogative.
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Leading to Civil War:

FIVE MEMBER COUP, JANUARY 1642:

  • Charles was going to arrest Haselrig, Hampden, Pym, Strode and Montegu.
  • This was due to rumours of them impeaching the Queen.
  • He failed and the birds had flown. 
  • Pym as a result used this to tell everyone of the dangers of Charles and he couldn't be negotiated with. 
  • The coup led to the London mob demonstrating against Charles in London causing him to flee. 
  • Parliament and King were now physically divided making compromise harder.

THE EXCLUSION BILL, FEBRUARY 1642:

  • Due to the failed coup, Radicals and the London mob now wanted to reduce King's support in Parliament.
  • Didi this by preventing Bishops from sitting in the Lords in which it was passed as they were pressured by the London Mob.
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