Charles I .vs. Cromwell/ Republican Rule

  • Created by: Polaris03
  • Created on: 19-01-20 17:12

Charles I and Finance

  • 1630 - Charles signed Treaty of Madrid w/ Spain, ending hostilities.
    • War spending reduced from £500,000 to £70,000 per year.
  • New impositions on collection of Tonnage and Poundage + feudal payments were revived.
    • e.g. 1634 - Charles I issued a monopoly on soap - raised price of soap + caused resentment in public agaisnt Charles.
  • Establishment of an annual levy of Ship Tax.
    • Became annual + nationwide tax in 1636 - hated by public.
    • Led to situations like Hampden Case - 1637, John Hampden refused to pay his Ship Tax and was brought before a court, narrow vote for a guilty verdict (7 to 5).
  • Distraint of Knighthood - from 1630, Charles called individuals with land valued over £20 p. a. to be knighted in coronations, 9000 individuals didn't show up and were fined.
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Cromwell and Finance

  • Legal measures to help debtors were introduced.
  • Few financial issues as parlieament controlled finance anyway, so little needed to be done to improve finance.
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Finance Conclusion

  • Overall, financial issues were very different for Charles I and Cromwell.
  • Charles had to do a lot actively to improve finances.
  • Cromwell didn't have many financial issues.
  • Because Charles had less control over parliament than Cromwell.
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Charles I and Religion

  • Charles I promoted Arminians like Laud in the Church.
  • Charles wanted Church to be more ritualistic + formal - very Catholic.
    • Ministers who resisted were tried.
    • Number of clergy who were forced out didn't rise greatly.
    • Churches became decorated + colourful.
  • Laud became Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633.
    • Decoration of Churches - Catholic.
    • 1633 - Book of Sports, could play sports on a Sunday.
    • Supported by public as it reduced demands on the congregation + reduced the number of sermons.
    • Angered Puritans - many Puritans fled to USA and Ireland.
  • Imposition of Laudiansim.
    • Visitations - overseen personally by Charles I and Laud.
    • Used Court of High Commission to punish via fines or imprisonment.
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Cromwell and Religion

  • 1645 - Governing of Church was to become Presbyterian in form.
    • 1646 - Parliament passed resolutions confirming collapse of episcopacy + confirming committment to Presbyterianism.
  • Independents were religious dissenters that supported the right to set up independent churches.
    • Supported by New Model Army - more of a threat as they have military power behind them.
  • 1644 - Apologetical Narration presented, appealed for right to have independent Churches but was dismissed by parliament.
  • 1650 - Blasphemy Act - religious radicals could be punished severely.
    • Quaker movement was growing - dissenters threatened national church.
    • Made to counteract problems with dissenters.
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Religion Conclusion

  • Overall, religious issues were very different for Charles I and Cromwell.
  • Charles I was trying to change national religion to Catholicism for personal reasons (wife Henrietta Maria was a Catholic).
  • Cromwell was trying to change the national religion to Presbyterianism for political reasons (alliance with Scotland); also Cromwell had a greater issue with religious dissenters than Charles I.
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Charles I and Power/ Politics

  • 1629-1640 - Personal Rule.
    • Charles didn't think that parliament was an effective way of ruling, he believed in the Divine Right of Kings.
      • Key reason for divisions between Charles I and parliament.
    • An attempt at an absolutist monarchy.
    • Parliamentry opponents were imprisoned.
  • Personal rule provoked little reaction initially.
    • MPs pushing the Three Resolutions seemed to justify it.
  • Charles was an effective ruler with a good Privy Council.
    • Led by Laud and Strafford.
  • Charles promoted his image with propaganda and appointed all judges - could control high profile political cases.
    • Controlled the way he was seen by the public and helped him to maintain power + control.
  • Key challenge to power came from Scottish.
    • English Book of prayer issued to Scottish clergy in 1637 - caused a rebellion as the Scots were Presbyterian.
    • Threat due to the strong + experienced Scottish army.
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Cromwell and Power/ Politics

  • 1654-55 - 1st Protectorate Parliament.
    • Parliament to be elected every 3 years + would sit for at least 5 months - no more opportunity for personal rule.
    • Cromwell to stay head of New Model Army - keeps military power so has more control over population as he has power to crush uprisings.
    • State Church w/ free worship, except for Catholics - Catholics more likely to be Royalists which is a threat to the Republican Rule.
    • Became unstable after initial successes.
  • 1655-56 - 2nd Protectorate Parliament + the rule of the major-generals.
    • 1655 - Royalist urising occurred, easily defeated
      • Showed greater control was needed - Cromwell imposed centralised military rule.
      • 11 districts, each with a major-general.
      • To create a reformation of manners - widely hated as it stopped things like **** fighting and pubs were closed.
    • Cromwell established the Commissions of TRiers and Ejectors to supervise the running of the Church.
      • To improve the quality of preaching + flexibility of beliefs.
    • Cromwell was offered the crown + refused.
    • New constitution.
      • There was an increased threat of revolution due to the major-generals (population dissatisfied) so a new constitution was needed.
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Power/ Politics Conclusion

  • Charles I and Cromwell's style of power and politics were very different.
  • Charles I had an absolutist monarchy - due to belief in Divine Right.
  • Cromwell had a more democratic parliament - offered crown but refused it.
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Charles I and Parliament

  • 1626 - Charles I called parliament to discuss subsidies - quickly dissolved parliament to stop the impeachment of Buckingham.
    • Called a forced tax instead.
  • 1628 - Charles I called parliament, who passed 5 subsidies.
    • Petition of Right - asked Charles I to reverse his decision on the 5 Knights Case, not force citizens to pay forced loans, not imprison people without trial, people would not be subject to martial law or be forced to provide lodgings for soldiers - Charles I refused to sign it.
  • 1640 - Long Parliament.
    • Strafford and Laud were impeached.
    • Forbid Charles' strategies to get money outside parliament.
    • Introduction of Triennial Act in 1641 - Charles I had to call parliament every 3 years.
    • 1641 - Act of Attainer against Strafford - later beheaded.
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Parliament Conclusion

  • Overall Charles I and Cromwell's relations with parliament were very different.
  • Charles had a very poor relation with parliament due to his belief in the Divine Right as he disregarded parliament's authority.
  • Cromwell had a very good relationship with parliament as he ensured that the country was run more democratically through parliament.
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