- Created by: AhsanIqbal14
- Created on: 29-01-16 12:53
Charles as a King
- Eventually made peace with France and Spain in 1629.
- Attended Privy council regularly and followed up decisions. Increased the amount of Bishops in the Privy council too.
- Strengthened his personal deputies William Laud and Thomas Wentworth.
- Relied of Henrietta Maria.
- Wanted a image of honour, (Van Dyck paintings).
- Justice was given via Prerogative courts like Star Chamber.
- Dissolved Parliament from 1629-40.
- Said they never understood him.
- Attempted Absolute Monarchy.
- Merchant Richard Chamber refused to pay Tunnage and Poundage was imprisoned.
- 9 MPs were arrested forcing the speaker to sit in his place.
- Sir John Elliot was imprisoned. Moved prison to prison to avoid Habeas Corpus.
- Habeas Corpus could release him as trial was unfair.
- Charles could rule personally if financially independent.
- King prerogative could allow him to change right/power of Church and state how he liked.
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How England was Governed:
- Privy councils with key officials and advisers of King.
- Lord Lietenant in counties controlled by Privy council.
- Responsible for raising troops.
- Individual privy councillors were incharge of Prerogative courts, i.e. Star chamber, Chancery Regional councils of North.
- This structure helped royal control.
- Charles made sure his ideas were understood.
- Laud and Wentworth were his key advisers.
- Their detail on policies was nicknamed Thorough.
- Wentworth worked in Ireland and the North, made sure royal authority was achieved.
- Laud worked in the Churches, responsible for 'Book of Orders'. 1631.
- Book of Order instructed JPs how to collect poor laws, treat beggars, move goods etc.
- Government, Council and Prerogative courts were effective
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How England was Governed Controversy:
- But in 1635, JPs had to collect Ship money, issue Book of Orders and Supress a Scottish Rebellion in 1637.
- Unsuccessful attempt to help the poor when JPs had to set wages when they were going to pay them.
- Overode local interests to benefit the King and advisers.
- Star Chamber unheld rights of nobility.
- 1632 damaged the Earl of Suffolk John Saville for his rivalry against Wentworth
- They eventually supported Parliament in the civil war.
- Wentworth was less sympathetic to Irish.
- Used Irish Parliament for money and alienated relgious groups there.
RELIGION AND BISHOPS:
- Resented no. of Bishops in Privy council.
- In 1632 Laud made his friend Francis Windebanke Secretary of the state.
- In 1635 when Lord treasurer Weston died, he was replaced with Cleric William Juxon and was resented by many as this was usually a position for nobility.
- Churches were decorated again.
- Authors that criticised them were punished in Prerogative Courts.
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Finance and Money without Parliament:
- Without Parliament funds he had to fix financial weaknesses.
- William Noy helped him find various way of ancient money making.
- Charles best money making scheme was a new tax called ship money.
- Ship Money was significant.
- Ship Money targets were set by the King to be collect from country as a whole.
- Placed a burden on Local justicies.
- Offered a real financial independence.
- Earned £100,000+ a year.
- Was used for Navy defence but was extended to inland areas.
- Political elite resented it.
- John Hampden 1637 refused to pay and was put on trial.
- Was succefully collected until 1637 civil war.
- Distracted the privy council.
- 1635 saw £5,000/200,000 was collected.
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Other Financial methods besides Ship Money
- 1630, Commission for detective titles examined titles and leases on tenants.
- New rents were imposed..
- Men owning freehold land of £40 a year meant that they had to pay for a Knighthood title.
- Raised £165,000 in 1635.
- Court of Wards and Liveries collect £50,000.
- East Indian Company monopoly given.
- Worst scanda was Popish Soap when a group of Catholics were fraudulent.
- Tunnage and Poundage continued to be collect and price rose via trade.
- New Impositions made £50,000 from 1631-35.
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Religion and the Church
- Laud became Archbishop of London in 1633.
- Put in new rules for Bishops.
- Preaching only allowed in Sunday mornings/evenings.
- Catechism replaced afternoon, placed key belief from Anglican prayer books in forms of QandA.
- Catechism replacing Preaching showed Laud emphasis on ritual and authority.
- Weekday lectures banned removing a favourate Puritan demand.
- Foeffes were challenged, a group of Puritan who bought Parishes to allow good quality preaching were bought/banned by Laud.
- Puritans felt attacked.
- Churches were decorated, music was played, Church bells restored.
- Charles and Laud saw this as bringing beauty to the Church.
- Replaced preaching with ceremonies.
- Music and ritual caused a joy for worship.
- Catechism brought unity
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Intentions and Reactions of Laud Reforms:
- Many thought banning preaching was devil works.
- Left many in darkness.
- Decorations and Statues were seen as symbol worshipping.
- Purtians saw that the Catholic mass was idol worshipping.
- Protestant faith felt attacked.
- Fact that Clergy railed off by Clergy saw them superior than Laity.
- Charles and Laud saw this a way off improving religious supervisions.
- Many Laymen saw this as way to renew Catholic Church Clerical Pretensions.
- Bishops in the Privy council, Catholic traditon being reimposed and new clergy status saw this as restoring absolutism and Catholicism.
- Catholic influence at court created fears.
- Henreitta Maria could be Catholic, her priests were allowed to convert others and Lord treasurer Weston was Catholic.
- 1635 Charles and Pope's Ambassador wanted a growing friendship.
- Those who didn't obey were prosectued in High Church and Star Chamber like Burton, Bastwick and Prynne who attacked Laud and the Queen.
- They were gentry but were still mutilated, crowd was horrified.
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- Many opposed Charles and Laud.
- Radical Puritans saw Church as Unacceptable.
- Bancrofts persectution in 1605 led to small congregations in Holland.
- Many formed Millinarian and Baptist Ideas from John Smyth.
- John Lulburne was a protege of Bastwick.
- He tried to smuggle Dr Bastwick's sermons from Holland which was printed with no license.
- He was sentenced to be pillored.
- He warned everyone about the evils of Bishops, he was imprisoned but freed by MP Oliver Cromwell when a Long Parliament was called.
- Radicals and Separatists were isolated.
- Moderate Puritans posed a real threat.
- Saw Laud and Charles as a threat to England.
- Charles overrode law and Parliaments to get a Absolute monarchy.
- Leaders of Puritan interests, e.g. Earl of Bedford fled to New England.
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