Anxiety disorders are characterised by a continuous feeling of anxiety accompanied by physiological symptoms e.g. sweating that are debilitating and intefere with daily functioning.
Anxiety disorders are neurotic and include OCD, phobias and PTSD.
Phobias are a definate, persistant fear of an object or situation that provokes an immediate response + person cannot control the fear response.
- DSM-V symptoms include:
- Marked and persistant fear that is excessive/unreasonable.
- Exposure to phobic stimulus provokes immediate anxiety response.
- Phobic situation is avoided.
- Person recognises fear as excessive.
- Phobia has lasted more that 6 months is people under 18.
Around 11% of the UK population have some type of phobia. The DSM-V requires two to three of these symptoms to be present for diagnosis and the phobia not have to been caused by side effects of medication.
Affective disorders are characterised by a major disturbance of emotions and dramatic changes in mood that interferes with daily functioning.
These include disorders such as depression - feelings of intense despair + persistant low mood or bipolar - where a person will have severe mood swings including manic and depressive disorders.
DSM-V symptoms for depression include:
- Insomnia for most nights.
- Fidgeting or lethargy.
- Feelings of worthlessness or guilt.
- Recurrent thoughts of death
- Significant weight change.
Depression is a very common disorder, the DSM-V requires at least 5 of the 9 symptoms in the DSM to be present before diagnosis. Symptoms should not be the result of medication side effects and should have been present in people >18 for <6 months.
Psychotic disorders involve a loss of contact with reality and leading to withdrawal from the world, confusion and disorientation.
Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder with symptoms classed as either positive (present ones) or negative (loss of normal functioning):
- Auditory/visual hallucinations - hearing voices/seeing things that don't exist.
- Disorganised speech and thinking.
- Inability to respond emotionally/feel pleasure.
Schizophrenia affects 1% of the populations and onset is usually early adulthood. the DSM-V requires at least 2 symptoms present and disorder not due to medication side effects.