Changing Urban Environments notes

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Housing issues

  • Pop of UK has increase by 7% since 1971 and is expected to continue , giving a pop of 52.5 mn in England by 2021.
  •  Number of households has risen by 30% since 1971.
  • Pop of UK has increase by 7% since 1971 and is expected to continue , giving a pop of 52.5 mn in England by 2021.
  • Number of households has risen by 30% since 1971 due to the fact that more people live alone- some 7mn! New single-person households account for 70% of the increased demand for housing. This due to people leaving home to rent or buy younger than previously, marrying later, getting divorced and leaving longer. A third of single- person households are aged over 65.
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hosuing issues (2)

  • The government target is to build 240,000 new houses every year by 2016 so that house prices do not spiral as a result of shortages. Many of the new homes will be built throughout existing towns and cities, with a target of 60% to be built on brownfield sites. However, some will inevitably have to be built on greenfield sites.
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Urban development corporation

  • UDCs aim- to secure regeneration of its area by bringing land and buildings into effective use, encouraging the development of existing and new industry and commerce, creating an attractive environment and ensuring that housing and facilities are available for all.
  • Introduced in 1980s, with London Docklands Development Corporation being set up in 1981. 11 more UDCs followed.
  • Involved public and private funding. Large scale schemes.
  • LDDC ceased in 1998 but £1.86 billion of public money was invested and £7.7 billion from private sector.
  • 431 ha of land was sold for development
  • 144km of new and improved roads
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Urban development corporation (2)

  • Construction of the Docklands Light Railway
  • 2.3km of commercial and industrial floor space built
  • 762ha of derelict land reclaimed
  • 24,046 new homes built
  • 2,700 businesses trading
  • 5 new health centres
  • 11 new primary schools, 2 secondary schools, 3 post 16 colleges
  • 94 awards for architecture, conservation and landscaping.
  • 85,000 now work in London Docklands
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City challenge

  • 1990s
  • Holistic approach to regeneration, local communities, local authorities and private companies worked together.
  • Hulme, Manchester City Challenge Partnership-
  • Crescents built in 1960s were demolished
  • Received £37.5 million
  • Some old buildings were retained
  • Homes designed to conserve water and be energy efficient and pleasant
  • Return to the traditional crescent layout
  • Local schools and a new park were created
  • Views of local people was taken into consideration.
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City challenge

  • 1990s
  • Holistic approach to regeneration, local communities, local authorities and private companies worked together.
  • Hulme, Manchester City Challenge Partnership-
  • Crescents built in 1960s were demolished
  • Received £37.5 million
  • Some old buildings were retained
  • Homes designed to conserve water and be energy efficient and pleasant
  • Return to the traditional crescent layout
  • Local schools and a new park were created
  • Views of local people was taken into consideration.
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Sustainable communities

  • Housing of an appropriate standard to offer a reasonable QoL, with access to jobs, health care and education
  • 2003, Cardroom was renamed New Islington Millennium Village.
  • 66 houses, 200 ground floor apartments
  • 500 2 and 3 storey apartments
  • 600 1 and 2 bed apertments
  • 34 urban barns
  • 3000m of canalside
  • 12 bridges
  • 50 moorings
  • 10 new shops

 

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sustainable communites (2)

  • 2 pubs, 2 restaurants
  • New bus stop and lines, 1200 parking underground
  • 300 new trees, 2 garden islands, orchard, beach, play areas and climbing rocks
  • Primary school
  • Health care centre and 8 GPs
  • 2 workshops
  • Crèche
  • Village hall, angling club, football pitch
  • Boreholes will provide filtered water
  • Recycling collection points to allow 50% of domestic waste to be recycled
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other inner city issues

  •   Part of the demand for housing will be fulfilled in the inner city areas. Many governments have tried to address the housing problems in a variety of ways.   
  • Since 1945 they most infamously decided to build cheap, high rise flats, they were not a success.
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Traffic issues and solutions

  • Air and noise pollution
  •  Buildings discoloured
  •  Respiratory problems- asthma
  • Unsightly

Solutions

  •  Park and Ride schemes in Oxford and York
  •   M6 Toll in Birmingham
  •  Increased investment in sustainable cars
  • Pedestrianisation of city centres e.g. High Wycombe
  •   In Leeds lone motorists are charged a toll along certain roads
  •   Trams in Manchester
  •   The Newcastle metro
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multicultural issues and solutions

  • Many immigrants choose to live with people from similar areas often away from other ethnicities and religions- SEGREGATION. Why?
  •  Support from others- safe and secure, protection from racial abuse
  • A familiar culture- comfort from being with people with similar ideas and beliefs and speak the same language
  • Specialist facilities- Sikhs can worship in a gurdwara and Muslims in a mosque. Similar foodstuffs in local shops.
  • Safety in numbers- people have a stronger voice in bigger numbers
  • Employment opportunities- they tend to do low paid jobs or have a higher rate of unemployment. They have limited money hence congregate in areas of cheaper housing.
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multicultural issues and solutions (2)

In Leeds they have tried to integrate different cultures:

  • Improving educational provision and opportunities in deprived areas, with a strong focus on literacy
  • Increasing employment through initiatives to ensure basic skills and access to information and training
  • INCREASING COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT BY ENSURING THAT THE NEEDS OF MINORITY GROUPS ARE UNDERSTOOD AND MET
  • Providing facilities that encourage meetings of all sections of a community rather than separate ethnic groups.
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Issues in CBD

  • The CBD declined between 1960-1980s as they became over crowded, polluted, congested and expensive. They lost out to out of town shopping centres and regional shopping centres which offered a far more pleasant environment.
  •    CBDs are now fighting back
  •   How has High Wycombe improved?
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case study of a squatter settlement- sau paulo

  • Housing- 50% of Mexico, Bombay and Sau Paulo live in shanty towns. Sited on spare land, steep slopes, rubbish tips, marsh land. Areas are prone to landslides, pollution, flooding. They are illegal. Made from anything- rubbish, corrugated iron, wood, sheets, cardboard. They are a fire hazard. Sleep whole families in one room. Have some basic services (gas, electricity, drainage). In Calcutta there is one tap and toilet per 30 people. Disease spreads easily.
  • Transport- dirt roads, most walk, some bike. Public transport is too expensive.

 

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sau paulo (2)

  • Food and Health- many suffer malnutrition. Local shops sell poor quality fly-ridden food. Lack a balanced diet, few proteins. High infant mortality rate. Lack of clean water encourages dysentery, typhoid and diarrhoea. Health care is too expensive.
  • Education- Most do not go to school, some go to primary school. Many remain illiterate. Leave school early to try and make money.
  • Employment- No jobs in shanties. Informal sector- street traders, roadside mechanics. Not many are unemployed but underemployed. Some may work in factories which are poor conditions and poor pay.
  • Social problems- crime, vandalism, theft, marriage break downs, stress.
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sau paulo (3)

Self-help schemes- Sao Paulo, Brazil

  • 1) Gov cannot remove the shanties, therefore set up self help schemes. Gov provides water, sewage, electricity and provides cheap building materials such as breeze-blocks. The families then build single storey homes with a water tank and indoor bathroom. The building develops community spirit and houses are cheap, hygienic and fire-resistant. These improved shanty towns are known as periferia
  • 2) An underground train system has also been installed in Sao Paulo to provide cheap transport, reduce accidents and reduce pollution.
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sau paulo (4)

  • 3) New capital, Brasillia was opened up in 1960 to divert migrants away from the crowded coast. Now has over 1mn population
  • 4) Gov have developed smaller towns to slow done the movement into the big cities as migration tends to occur in stages. Smaller towns have been developed through building low cost homes and attracting ind for employment.
  • 5) Built the Trans Amazonia Highway to open up the rainforest. Free land was given to people who migrated to the area rather than the cities. Gov have also tried to deal with problems in the rural areas to stop migration by splitting up large estate farms and redistributing it amongst the peasants.

 

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waste disposal

  • Two huge incinerators in Sau Paulo burn 7,500 tonnes of waste a day. Only two landfill sites, which many scavenge in to re cycle the waste and sell on.
  • In Shanghai, China, an effectice solid waste disposal unit has been set up in every household. The waste is used as fertiliser in rural dwellings
  • Toxic waste after Bhopal had to be sent to USA to be disposed of as safely.

 

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air pollution

  • 80% of energy in China comes from coal. A carbon tax might need to be introduced
  • In Shanghai they use low sulphur coal
  • Public transport needs to be considered- Mexico city- odd numbered plates only allowed in to city centre every other day.
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water pollution

  • 1986 the Ganga Action Plan introduced water treatment on River Ganges in India, successful but population growth has put it under pressure.
  • In shanghai, the Huangpu has been the target of improved water. World Bank gave a $200mn grant in 2002.

 

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sustainable city- curritiba

  • 1.8mn pop
  • 7th largest city
  • 1940s was the first city to consider sustainability and control urban expansion
  • 1968- Curitiba Master Plan, control urban sprawl, reduce traffic in city centre, develop public transport and preserve the historic sector. Aim to leave a suitable area for future generations living in the city.

 

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curritiba (2)

  • The Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) System:
  • - First Brazilian city to have a dedicated bus lanes
  • - Direct line buses, which operate from key pick-up points
  • - Speedy buses, which operate on the five main routes into the city and have linked stops
  • - Inter-district buses, which join up districts without crossing the city centre
  • -Feeder mini-buses which pick people up from residential areas.
  • Housing in Curitiba
  • COHAB, the city’s public housing programme, believes that residents should have ‘homes- not just shelter.’ They have introduced a housing policy that will provide 50,000 homes for the poor.

 

 

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