Changing settlements in the UK

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  • Created by: Holly45
  • Created on: 24-05-15 12:51

Changing urban areas

  • about 90% of the UKs population lives in urban areas
  • Liverpool's population has declined sharply between 1961 and 2001
  • London's population declined a little before 1981 but has since increased by 1.6 million
  • Liverpool was shaken by globalisation but London benefited from it
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Variations in quality of life

  • Index of Multiple Deprivation measures the seven aspects of quality of life: income, employment, health, education, housing and services, crime and environment
  • in 2010, 51% of all census areas in Liverpool were in the bottom 10% for multiple deprivation in the country
  • in 2010, only 8% of census in London were in the bottom 10% for multiple deprivation
  • compared to Liverpool, the population in Croydon is younger, healthier, better qualified and more likely to work
  • Croydon is connected to central London by the underground, rail and bus networks which makes travel easier and quicker
  • Croydon was ranked 34th out of 152 council areas on its 2012 GCSE results but Liverpool was ranked 104th
  • only 1% of land in Croydon is vacant or derelict compared to 7% in Liverpool
  • in Croydon, 37% of land is green space such as parks compared to 23% in Liverpool
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Changing rural settlements

  • only 10% of the UK population lives in rural areas. These are countryside areas with:
  • low population density
  • small settlements of under 10000 people
  • most of the land consisting of farmland plus grassland and woodland
  • rural areas have changed in the UK over the last 50 years becuase:
  • many areas are much less isolated that they once were becuase of new roads and a rise in car ownership
  • large areas are now protected as national parks
  • urban people visit the areas becuase they have more leisure time
  • farming is less important as a source of income
  • REMOTE RURAL COMMUNITIES: have too few people to support many services. Many are protected areas that limit the amount of new development that can take place
  • RETIREMENT COMMUNITIES: in areas such as Devon, Cornwall, East Yorkshire and South lakeland have developed becuase the UK population is ageing and people are living longer
  • COMMUTER VILLAGES: are a result of counter urbanisation, when middle class families started moving out of the city to the countryside and commuting to work. Families like the safety and peace of the countryside but still want to be close to the city
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Contrasting rural regions

  • west Somerset located in South west England, North of exmoor national park, was the 45th most deprived local authority area in 2010
  • hart in Hampshire was the least deprived local authority area
  • west Somerset's population declined by 1% between 2001 and 2011 whereas hart's grew by 9%
  • about 30000 of harts residents commute to the district every day, many to London using the M3 motorway and rail links
  • car ownership and incomes are high with means people can access shops and other services
  • it's easier for people in hart to travel abroad and airports such as Gatwick and Heathrow are close by
  • much of west Somerset consists of Exmoor national parks
  • there are no motorways in the area
  • the area has no universities so many young people leave when they finish secondary school
  • transport and energy costs are high as there are few rural bus services
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Demand for residential areas

  • in 2011 Cambridge had a population of 124000
  • it's population increased 14% between 2001 and 2011
  • Cambridge is also:
  • a desirable and attractive place for families
  • good location for commuting to London
  • an area of ecomomic growth
  • good location for university students
  • housing supply is restricted because:
  • much of the city is a historic conservation area
  • city is ringed by protected greenbelt land which cannot be built on
  • about 50% of all land in the city is protected green space
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Rebranding and regeneration

  • REGENERATION: this means physical redevelopment of an area with new buildings and infrastructure, so derelict and abandoned areas are brought back into use
  • REBRANDING: this means changing the image of an area so outsiders see it as a more positive way
  • a further 25,000 jobs were created between 1998 and 2008 many in the culture, tourism and scientific sectors
  • 85% of Liverpool's residents felt the city was better after the capital of culture investments and events
  • Liverpool's population is growing
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Developing rural areas

  • tourism has problems:
  • it usually depends on the weather
  • it is very seasonal and so are the jobs
  • pay is low and skill levels are low
  • places that were popular last year might not be the next year
  • provides around 400 jobs and a further 200 seasonal jobs
  • over 13 million have visited, brining £1 billion into the local economy
  • local hotels and pubs have benefited from tourists
  • estimated that this had added 2500 jobs to the local economy
  • the ugly derelict quarry has been recycled into a unique visitor attraction
  • uses rainwater harvesting and has applied for planning permission to build a 4 megawatt geothermal power station
  • sustainable rural development
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Conserving rural areas

  • rural areas are often caught between two forces:
  • visitors and retired people want rural areas conserved to maintain their traditional character and landscape
  • local people, especially the young, want economic development to ensure that there are jobs
  • greenbelts and national parks are used to conserve rural areas
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