Changing population

Geography exam

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Distribution and Density

  • Population density -is defined as the number of people living in a square kilometre. Places can be described as being densely populated or sparsely populated.
  • Population distribution - describes how people are spread out. Some terms used to describe distribution include even, clustered and random. 

reasons for differences in population

  • a range of physical factors such as relief, climate, soil, vegetation and natural resources
  • a range of human factors such as urban growth, industrial growth , agricultural development and governmental policies
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Where people live in Brazil

Brazil has a population of 186 million 

  • the north is sparsely populated ( contains the amazon river and dense vegetation ) 
  • the north east contains a third of the countries population ( numbers are decreasing due to drought ) 
  • the south east has the highest population density ( it contains the cities Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro )
  • the south has high population ( fertail soil and suitable climate ) 
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this is the process by which an increasing proportion of a population live in urban areas. Migration of people from the countryside to cities, together with higher birth rates and international migration in urban areas, lead to urbanisation 

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this is a term to describe to movement of people from urban to rural areas

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Why people move from rural to urban areas

This is common in LEDCs

  • People believe that urban areas are places of 'bright lights', job opportunities and access to services such as schools and hospitals 
  • high population increase causes land and food shortages in rural areas
  • Lack of money and a lack of education means a life of poverty in the countryside 
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Why people move from urban to rural areas

This is a feature of many MEDCs

  • Urban areas are increasingly seen as places of crime, noise and pollution 
  • Rural areas are seen as places of space, quite and a sense of community 
  • Rural areas are thought to have good schools and be safe for children 
  • Many people retire and move to rural areas
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Birth rates

Birth rate is the number of live births per 1000 people per year 

Birth rates are high in LEDCs 

  • large families are seen as a sign of male virility 
  • some religions do not approve of contraception 
  • children provide labour on farms 
  • women lack education and are expected to stay at home to raise a family
  • girls are marries early, extending their child bearing years

Births rates are lower in MEDCs

  • people marry later
  • women are educated and often have a career
  • it is expensive to raise children 
  • birth control and contraception
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Death rates

Death rate is the number of deaths per 1000 people per year 

Death rates are low in MEDCs and falling in LEDCs

  • better health care
  • people have less physical demanding jobs 
  • people are better educated about health and hygiene
  • water suppliers are more reliable and cleaner

Death rates are increasing in some MEDCs and LEDCs 

  • HIV is having an increasingly significant impact on death rates in LEDCs 
  • in MEDCs there are an increasing number of elderly people
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Population structure

population is displayed in a population pyramid 

  • horizontal bars show the percentage of the population in each age group
  • males are shown on the left and women on the right 
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The UKs aging population

What is the issue?

  • There are more elderly dependants 
  • There are decreasing numbers of economically active people in the population 

What can be done? 

  • People are working for longer
  • People are being encouraged to save their retirement 
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One child policy in China

The policy passed in 1979


  • The birth rate in china has fallen considrably in the last 30 years
  • It has reported that 90 per cent of foetuses aborted in china were female 
  • China's gender balance has become distored, men outnumer women in china by more than 60 million 

Long term implications

  • The falling birth rate is leading to an unbalanced population structure
  • There are very few people of working age to support the growing number of elderly dependents 
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Great stuff!



This is really helpful! Thanks :)

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