DEFINE THE TERMS:
- FERTILITY RATE: The ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 population per year
- MORTALITY: Number of deaths in a population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time
- INFANT MORTALITY: The death rate during the first year of life
- LIFE EXPECTANCY: The average period that a person may expect to live.
These affect population growth because although the birth rate may be high in some countries, the (infant) mortality rate may also be high, driving up the number of deaths.
- DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE: Demography is the study of population's vital statistics.
- POPULATION CHANGE: The changes in population over a given period, expressed in absolute figures or proportional figures (rate of change).
Investigating Population Change
The study of population size, growth and age structure and the forces (fertility, mortality, migration) that lead to population change.
- NUMBERS: How many people?
- QUALITY OF LIFE: Are people healthy an secure?
- STRUCTURE: How many people in each age group?
- MIGRATION: Where are people from and to?
- TRENDS: What is happening to populations?
- DISTRIBUTION: Where are the people?
Natural Change = Number of briths - number of deaths
Net Migration = Number of immigrants - number of emmigrants
Population Change = Natural change + net migration
1. Rapid Growth: Narrow Top = High Death Rate. Concave (Pyramid) Shape = Short Life
Expectancy. Wide Base = High Birth Rate. Triangular shape = rapid population growth.
2. Slow Growth: Wide Top = Low Death Rate. Convex (Curved/Rounded) Shape = Long Life Expectancy. Narrow Base = Low Birth Rate. Squared Shape = Slow Population Growth.
3. Negative Growth: Wide Top = Low Death Rate. Very Narrow Base = Low Birth Rate. Top/Middle Heavy Shape = falling population. Fairly evenly distributed population.
Types of Migration...
MIGRATION: The movement of people from one country or location to another
FORCED MIGRATION: The coerced movement of a person away from their home or region.
INTERNAL MIGRATION: The temporary or permanent relocation of population inside the boundaries of a nation.
IMMIGRTION: The action of coming to live permanently in a foreign country
EMIGRATION: Migration from a place in order to settle to another
VOLUNTARY MIGRATION: When they choose to leave y their own will
ASYLUM SEEKERS: A person who from fear of persecution and moves to find for a better life.