Changing Countryside

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  • Created on: 19-05-13 18:33

Malawi LEDC (Case Study)


RURAL ISOLATION: Rural areas have very poor communications. In 2007, Malawi had only 1 phone line for every 139 people. Rural coverage for mobile phones is very poor.

RURAL TO URBAN MIGRATION: Many young men move to the cities. This makes rural problems worse because there are fewer people to work and to bring in money.

POOR ECONOMY: The rural economy has hardly grown recently. It has poor infrastructure e.g. dirt roads and during the rainy season they become boggy and the rural areas become inaccessible.

RURAL POVERTY: Each day, rural farmers typically spend 4 hours collecting firewood, walking to and from farm plots and the market. The only way to cope with this is to involve the whole family, so many children miss out on school. This leads them to having low skills and therefore they can’t get a well-paid job as an adult. 85% of the population in Malawi live in the countryside.

HIV/AIDS: 20% of Malawians are infected. This means that these people can’t work, increased number of orphans and costs for drugs.

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Malawi LEDC (Case Study)

Problems with Farming

LARGE ESTATES: A lot of the land is owned by large British companies (e.g. PG tips) which grow tea, coffee and tobacco. They hire local labourers but they only get paid 1p per kg of tea leaves.

TOBACCO TENANTS: A lot of the tobacco farms hire children meaning that they don’t go to school. Also a lot of tobacco firms rent their land to labourers to grow tobacco and then do not pay them a fair price for their crops.

SUBSISTENCE FAMRING: A lot of people in Malawi only farm a small plot of land. They grow enough food for themselves (subsistence farming) and then hope to sell a small amount in the market. Because the Malawian currency has recently collapsed it is now very difficult to afford fertiliser.

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Malawi LEDC (Case Study)


IDEA 1: Using Lake Malawi to irrigate (water) the land. This will mean Malawi can export food abroad and earn money. This could cause problems such as reducing the amount of water in the lake, pollution from fertilisers in the lake, Mozambique also borders the lake and it may be conflicts.

IDEA 2: Introduce GM crops to Malawi. They will allow Malawi to grow more food and create more jobs and economic growth. The crops are modified to fight disease and drought. Some people argue that this is not a good idea because most of the seed comes from American TNCs and too little is known about GM crops.

IDEA 3: Mushrooms are a potential crop which could help those families affected by HIV/AIDS. Residents are trained to grow mushrooms and are given small loans to buy the compost needed. They can sell the mushrooms to the supermarkets and then spend the profits on improving their quality of life.

IDEA 4: Fish farming can also help those families affected by HIV/ AIDS. A charity called World Vision supports the project and farmers keep small ponds of fish. It is cheap to do but they produce a very large amount of fish per years. Fish are also a great source of protein and will help people with HIV and to stop child malnutrition. It has increased income in 1200 households.

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Lake District MEDC (Case Study)

Lake District

The Lake District is a National Park in the UK. National Parks are special because they are protected and managed.

The Lake District is very accessible by motorway (M6) and rail access. It is also close to major cities such as Manchester, Liverpool and Leeds. All this means leads to 15 million visitors going to the Lake District each year.

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Lake District MEDC (Case Study)

Benefits of Tourism

  • 55% of the jobs in the Lake District comes from tourism.
  • Car park charges generate money for local councils.
  • Farmers benefit from selling local goods to holiday accommodation or farmers.
  • Tourism brings investment and the local council are more likely to maintain roads and other infrastructure.

Problems of Tourism

  • Traffic congestion is severe. 85% of tourists arrive by car and most of the local roads are narrow and become congested.
  • House prices are high. Properties are bought as second homes or for holiday lets. This pushes the prices higher and too high for most local people.
  • Seasonal unemployment is a problem. Jobs are seasonal and tend to be low paid and part time. These jobs mainly suit students or overseas workers.
  • Footpath erosion. Each year 7 million visitors walk in the hills and footpaths become trampled.
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Lake District MEDC (Case Study)


Housing Problem

  • Limit second home ownership.
  • Build more affordable houses for local people.
  • Convert disused buildings into homes

Footpath Erosion

  • Spending money on repairing the footpaths.
  • Close down areas where erosion is the most serious.
  • Put up notice boards to educate people about footpath erosion.

Traffic Congestion

  • Park and ride schemes in towns such as Windermere. Where people park their car away from the town and use public transport to get into the town.
  • Build bypasses around towns.
  • Increase the amount of public transport.
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