Change in UK Cities- Liverpool


Backgroud History

1) developed on the mersey  river estuary and became a port for cotton, sugar and slaves.

2) manufacturing industry- large factory employment of cars and ships 

3) immigration from Ireland and wales ( by 1850 1/4 were irish)

4) decline on the dock 1960's led to 350 factories being closed and huge level of unemploymen. lots of young and skilled people left the city.

5) European City of Culture in 2008- attracted huge investment for regeneration

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Social and Economic Opportunities✔

1) Cultral mix- many migraters brought range of food, festivals and cultures attracting tourists, e.g China Town

2) Recreation and entertainment-the restoration of albert docks brought many shops, cafes and mueseums (tate)_Echo area built on a brown field site. Liverpool ONE- £1 bill. spent regenerating into shoping and enteratainment complex.

3)Employment- tourism and service sector offers may jobs. 'Baltic Triangle' conserved derlict factoris and warehouses into art and film making. There is still some car and shipping port industry.

4) Integrated Transport Systems- Now you can use a prepaid card to use the bus, train or ferry network making it easier.

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Environmental Opportunities✔

1) Industry Decline- left many areas (Toxteth) run down and openspaces turned to wastelands. 

__Urban Greening: planners trying to increase and improve greenspaces (public parks and gardens)

2) Parks and Green Areas- more cycle and pedestrain routes and waste lands coverted into parks. Liverpool ONE includes a 5 acre park right in the city centre.

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Social and Economic Impacts ❌

1) Industrial Decline- 20th century-left much of the city deprived especially Toxteth being one of the worst in the country

2) Regeneration inequailty- only wealthier people could afford better housing, schools and employment.

3) Inner city redevelopment- existing hoses were cleared and replaced. New modern houses were too expensive for exsisting residents.

4) Education- Deprived children leave school without basic qualifications = low income and high unemployment- 9% of adults in Anfield were unemployment.

5) Unhealthy lifestyle- i.e drinking, smoking and bad diets were more common. Life expectancy in Toxteth was 10 yrs lower than in wealthier areas of the city.

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Environmental Impacts ❌

1) Vandalism- people left the inner city, leaving buliding empty and vandalised especially in Toxteth.

2) Population Growth- put pressure to build on a green field site, destroying natural habitats. It is better to build on a brownfield site however that requires clearing and decontamination before hand.

3)Waste disposal- Issues increased as the population did. Plans are put in place to build a new waste and recycling centre.

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