chains and rings ocr old spec flash cards

the equations for chains and rings

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  • Created on: 02-06-09 13:17

Alcohols

2CH3CH2OH + 2Na --> 2CH3CH2O-Na+ + H2

^ turns phenylphthalein pink

esters -CH3CH2OH + H3C-C=OOH -conc H2SO4/reflux-> H3C=OOCH2CH3

CH3CH2OH + H3C-C=OCl <==> H3C-C=OOCH2CH3 + HCl

NaBr + H2SO4 --> NaHSO4 + HBr

CH3CH2OH + HBr --> CH3CH2Br + H2O

primary and secondary alcohols are oxidised with dichrmate ions so Cr2O72-(orange) --> Cr3+(green)

dehydration - CH3CH2OH -hot ceramic catalyst-> CH2=CH2 +H2O

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Halogenoalkanes

voletile liquids, dont mix with water so must first be treated with ethanol

CH3CH2Br + OH- -heat-> CH3CH2OH + Br-

hydrolys easyer Cl->Br->I (large radii)

Ag+ + Cl- --> AgCl(s)

CH3CH2Br + NH3 -heat and pressure/ethanol-> CH3CH2NH2 + HBr

CH3CH2Br + NaOH -reflux in ethanol-> CH2=CH2 + NaBr + H2O

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Fuels

cracking - long chain hydrocarbons to shorter by heating and a zeolite catalyst

reforming - alkanes -> cycloalkanes and arenes catalysed by platinum

isomerisation - straight to branch chain alkanes with heat and platinum catalyst -molecular sieve of zeolites

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Alkenes

cyclohexene + H2 -nickel catalyst-> cyclohexan

CH3CH=CH2 + Br2 -darkness-> CH3CHBrCH2Br

CH2=CH2 + HCl -rm temp-> CH3CH2Cl

CH2=CH2 + H2O -600K 6MPa H3PO4-> CH3CH2OH

test- shake with bromine water and solution will decolourise

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