Chain of Causation - Criminal Liability

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Factual Causation

But for test -

R v Pagett,

R v White (only convicted for attempted murder)

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Legal Causation - Significant and Operative Cause

Did the defendants acts have a significant and operant cause?

- R v Jordan (never created a precedent.)

- R v Cheshire

- R v Smith

Both of R v Cheshire and R v Smith both found to be the operating and substancial cause the vicims injury/death/loss.

SIGNIFICANT AND OPERATIVE CAUSE ARE ONLY IN CRIMINAL LIABILITY.

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Legal Causation - Novus Actus Intervienes.

A new interviening act.

- R v Williams

- R v Roberts

NOVUS ACTUS INTERVIENES ONLY COME UNDER LEGAL CAUSATION, NOT FACTUAL.

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Legal Causation - Thin Skull Rule.

Take your victim as you find them.

- Refusing medical treatment ---> R v Dear.

- Religious beliefs ---> R v Blaue

- Physiological conditions ---> R v Heywood.

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