Cereals - Food Technology

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Structure

  • Embryo - root and shoot sprouts - essentail fatty acids
  • Endosperm - store of starch, converted to glucose to provide energy for the embryo - starch + protein
  • Bran - protects the grain - fibre + B vitamins
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Moisture

  • 10-14% optimum
  • High moisture levels = sprouting
  • Weevils
  • Musty smell
  • Mould growth
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Wheat Milling

  • Specialist machinery for removing contaminants e.g. stones
  • Grains washed in a moving stream of water
  • Condition grain to right moisture level - 15%, at 25c for 48 hours
  • Break rolls - one roller holds grain whilst other breaks it 
  • Large particles pass through sifters then break rolls
  • Small particles of endosperm converted to flour by smoothe, reduction rolls
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Malting

  • Malt Whiskey
  • Exposed to warm, moist conditions so barely germinates
  • Releases enzymes
  • Break down starch to maltose
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Making

  • Bread Making - Strong wheat, high protein content, more glutenous, bread of good loaf, good texture
  • Cake Making - Weaker wheat, low protein content, low gluten content, crumbly, soft crumb
  • Pasta Making - Durham Wheat Semolina, high gluten content, tough endosperm, less water facilitates the drying of pasta
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