Cells- Biology

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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 09-02-13 10:50

Plant Cells

  • cell wall- made of cellulose, supports the cell, strengthens the cell
  • permanent vacuole- contains cell sap, weak solution of sugars and salts
  • chloroplasts- for photosythesis, contain chlorophyll which aborb light energy
  • nucleus- contains genetic material- DNA, controlls activities of the cell
  • cytoplasm- contains enzymes which controll chemical reactions
  • cell membrane- holds the cell together, controlls what goes in and out of the cell
  • mitochondria- where reactions for respiration take place- releases energy the cell needs to work
  • ribosomes- where protiens are made  
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Animal Cells

  • nucleus- contains genetic material- DNA, controlls activities of the cell
  • cytoplasm- contains enzymes which controll chemical reactions
  • cell membrane- holds the cell together, controlls what goes in and out of the cell
  • mitochondria- where reactions for respiration take place- releases energy the cell needs to work
  • ribosomes- where protiens are made
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Yeast cell

  • single celled organism
  • microorganism
  • nucleus- contains genetic material- DNA, controlls activities of the cell
  • cytoplasm- contains enzymes which controll chemical reactions
  • cell membrane- holds the cell together, controlls what goes in and out of the cell
  • cell wall - supports the cell and strengthens it  
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Bacterial cell

  • single celled microorganism
  • they dont have a nucleus- the genetic material floats in the cytoplam
  • cytoplasm- contains enzymes which controll chemical reactions
  • cell membrane- holds the cell together, controlls what goes in and out of the cell
  • cell wall- supports and strengthens the cell
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Specialised cell 1- Sperm and eggs cells

The egg cell:

function- carry female DNA, look after the embryo in its early stages

  • contains lots of food reserves to feed the embryo
  • the membrane changes its structure when it fuses with a sperm, to stop more sperm from getting in- so the offspring had the correct amount of DNA

The sprem cell:

function- carry male DNA to the female DNA

  • long tail and streamlined head to help it swim
  • contains lots of mitochondria- provide energy that is needed
  • carry enzymes in their head- to digest the cell membrane of the egg so it can get inside
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Specialised cell 2- Guard cells

function- to open and close pores in a leaf to allow gas exchange and control water loss

  • kidney shape which opens and closes the stomata (pores) in a leaf
  • when the plant has lots of water- guard cells fill up, becoming plump and turgid, this causes the stomata to open so gases can be exchanged for photosythensis
  • when plant is short of water- guard cell loses water, becomes flaccid, causing the stomata to close which stops too much water from escaping
  • thin outer walls with thicker inner walls to help with opening and closing
  • sensitive to light to help with photosythesis 
  • close at night to save water
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Specialised cell 3- Red Blood cells

function- carry oxygen around the body

  • concave shape- gives a big surface area for absorbing oxygen and helps them to pass smoothly through capilaries to reach body cells
  • packed with haemoglobin- pigment which absorbs oxygen
  • no nucleus to allow for more room for haemoglobin
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Specialised cells 4- Palisade leaf cells

function- photosythensis

  • packed with chloroplasts for photosythensis
  • most of the chloroplasts are at the top of the cell so they are can get as much light as possible
  • tall shape- lots of surface area on the side for absorbing CO2
  • thin shape- pack loads of them tightly at the top of the leaf where most of the photosythensis occurs
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