Cells AQA Biology Unit 2

Covering the topic 'Cells' in AQA's Biology Unit 2.

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ANIMAL AND PLANT CELLS

- Most animal cells contain a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria and ribosomes.

- Plant cells contain all the structures seen in aminal cells as well as a cell wall and, in many cases, chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole filled with sap.

- Enzymes control the chemical reactions inside cells.

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SPECIALISED CELLS

- Cells may be specialised to carry out a particular function. Before they are specialised they are known as stem cells.

- Examples of specialised cells are fat cells, cone cells, root hair cells and sperm cells. These have may different adaptations to make them be able to do their function.

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HOW DO SUBSTANCES GET IN AND OUT OF CELLS?

- Dissolved substances move in and out of cells by diffusion, osmosis and active transport.

- Diffusion is the net movement of particles from an area where they are at a high concentration to an area where they are at a low concentration. 

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OSMOSIS

- Osmosis is a special case of diffusion.

- Osmosis is the diffusion of water from a high water concentration to a low water concentration through a partially permeable membrane.

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