Cells and their uses

Cells and their uses

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Animal Cells

Nucleus

Cytoplasm

Cell Membrane

Mitochondira

Ribosomes

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Plant Cells

Nucleus

Cytoplasm

Cell Membrane

Mitochondria

Ribosomes

Cell Wall

Permanent Vacuole

Chloroplasts

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Nucleus

Contains GENETIC material which CONTROLS the ACTIVITIES of the CELL

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Cytoplasm

Most CHEMICAL processes take place here and are controlled by ENZYMES

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Cell Membrane

CONTROLS the MOVEMENT of SUBSRANCES iN and OUT of the CELL

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Mitochondria

Most energy is released by RESPIRATION here

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Ribosomes

Protein synthesis happens here

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Cell Wall

Strengthenes the cell

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Chloroplasts

Contains CHLOROPHYLL which ABSORBS LIGHT energy for PHOTOSYNTHESIS

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Permanent Vacuole

FILLED with CELL SAP that is used to HELP keel the CELL TURGID

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Leaf Cell

ABSORBS LIGHT for PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

Packed with CHLOROPLASTS

CLOSELY PACKED CELLS form a contiuous layer for EFFICIENT ABSORPTION of SUNLIGHT.

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Root hair cell

ABSORBS WATER and MINERALS IONS from SOIL.

Very THIN WALLS which gives a LARGE SURFACE AREA.

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Sperm Cell

FERTILISES FEMALE GAMETE.

HEAD contains GENETIC info and ENZYME to help penetrate EGG MEMBRANE.

Middle section filled with MITOCHONDRIA for ENERGY.

TAIL helps the sperm move to the egg.

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Red blood cells

Contain HAEMOGLOBIN to carry oxygen around to the cells.

THIN OUTER MEMBRANE to let OXYGEN DIFFUSE.

Shape increases SURFACE AREA to allow more OXYGEN to be ABSORBED.

NO NUCLEUS, WHOLE CELL FULL OF HAEMOGLOBIN.

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Diffusion

Dissolved substances have to pass theough a cell membrane in order to get in or out.

Diffusion occurs when particles SPREAD. Move from a region of HIGH CONCENTRATION to a region of LOW CONCENTRATION. Happens when particles are free to move around.

Particles diffuse down a CONCENTRATION GRADIENT from an area of HIGH CONCENTRATION to and area of LOW CONCENTRATION.

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Osmosis

Water can move across a cell membrane because of osmosis. For it to happen you need@

Two solutions/ different concentrations

A PARTIALLY PERMEABLE MEMBRANE to separate them (partially permeable membrane only allows some substances to pass through.

Moves from a LESS CONCENTRATED SOLUTION to a more CONCENTRATED SOLUTION through a PARTIALLY PERMEBALE MEMBRANE.

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Osmosis

Level on the more concentrated side of the membrane rises whereas the one with the less concentration decrases. When the concentration is the same on both sides of the membrane the movement of water molecules will be the same in both directions.

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Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

Some molecules leave the cell by diffusion;

  • carbon dioxide

Some molecules enter;

  • glucose
  • water
  • oxygen

This is allowed by the cell membrane which is SEMI-PERMEABLE

Not all molecules can pass through eg

  • starch
  • proteins

Osmosis is a special type of diffusion of water molecules.

Osmosis is the movement od water molecules from an area of high concentration water molecules to an area of low concentration water molecules through a semi-permeable membrane.

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