Cells and Organelles

  • Prokaryotic cells
  • Eukaryotic cells
  • Different organelles and their functions
  • Protein production
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Prokaryotics and Eukaryotics

  • Prokaryotic cells are single-celled organisms and are smaller and simplier than eukaryotic cells. An example of a prokaryotic cell is bacteria.
  • Eukaryotic cells are complex and a bit more complicated than prokaryotic cells and examples of eukaryotic cells are animal and plant cells.
  • Both types of cells contain organelles which are part of the cells and they all have different and specific functions.
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Eukaryotic Cells

Plant and Animal Cells are both EUKARYOTIC cells.

Animal cells contain:

  • Cell membrane
  • Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • Lysosome
  • Ribosome
  • Nucleolus
  • Nucleus
  • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum mitochondrion
  • Cytoplasm
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Nuclear envelope

Plant cells contain all of the above, but ALSO contain; A cell wall with plasmodesmata, A vacoule and Chloroplasts.

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Prokaryotic cells

An example of a prokaryotic cell is bacteria.

A prokaryotic bacterial cell contains:

  • Flagellum 
  • Cell wall
  • Cell membrane
  • Ribosome
  • Capsule
  • Plasmids (small loops of DNA)
  • Circular DNA
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Differences between Prokaryotics and Eukaryotics

Prokaryotics and Eukaryotics have many differences

  • Prokaryotic cells are a lot smaller than Eukaryotic cells.
  • Prokaryotic cells don't have a nucleus (their DNA floats free in the cytoplasm). The DNA in a Prokaryotic cell whereas in a Eukaryotic it's linear.
  • Prokaryotic cells have fewer organelles than Eukaryotic cells. For example, they don't have mitochondria.
  • Prokaryotic cells have smaller ribosomes than Eukaryotic cells.
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  • Cell surface membrane - found on the surface of animal cells and inside plant cells and prokaryotic cells and made of protein and lipids - regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell.
  • Nucleus - large organelle surrounded by a nuclear envelope containing pores and nucleus contains chromatin and often the nucleolus - chromatin is made from DNA and helps to control the cells activities, the pores allow substances to move between the nucleus and cytoplasm and the nucleolus makes ribosomes.
  • Lysosome - roung organelle surrounded by a membrane - contains digestive enzymes which can be used to digest invading cells or to break down worn out components.
  • Ribosome - a very small organelle that floats free in the cytoplams or is attactched to roughER - it is the site where proteins are made.
  • Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) - smoothER; system of membranes enclosing a fluid-filled space - synthesises and processes lipids, roughER; is similiar to smoothER but is covered in ribosomes - folds and processes proteins.
  • Golgi Apparatus - a group of fluid-filled flattened sacs - processes and packages new lipids and proteins and makes new lysosomes.
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Organelles cont.

  • Mitochondrion - have a double membrane; inner one is folded to form cristae, inside is the matrix which contains enzymes involved in respiration - the site of aerobic respiration.
  • Vesicle - small fluid-filled sac in cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane - transports substances in and out of the cell.
  • Cell wall - rigid structure that surrounds plant cells.
  • Chloroplast - small flattened structure found in plant cells and is surrounded by a double membrane - the site of photosynthesis.
  • Centriole - small, hollow cylinders containing a ring of microtubules - involved in the seperation of chromosomes in cell division.
  • Flagellum (flagella) - stick out from the cell surface and contain microtubules - microtubules contract to make the flagellum move.
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Protein production

  • Proteins are made at the ribosomes
  • Ribosomes on the roughER make proteins that are excreted or attached to the cell membrane. The free ribosomes in the cytoplasm make proteins that stay in the cytoplasm.
  • New protiens produced at the roughER are folded and processed in the roughER and are then transported from the ER to the golgi apparatus in vesicles.
  • At the golgi apparatus, the proteins may undergo further processing.
  • The proteins enter more vesicles to be transported around the cell
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