Plant and Animal Cells..

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Every animal and plant is made up of cells. 

Animal cells and plant cells have some of the same features, and some different.

Both cells have: 

  • nucleus
  • cytoplasm
  • cell membrane
  • mitochondria
  • ribosomes

Plant cells also have:

  • cell wall
  • chroloplasts
  • permananet vacuole 
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Specialised Cells

Leaf cell - absorbs light energy for photosynthesis
                - packed with chloroplasts

Root hair cell - Absorbs water and mineral ions from the soil 
                         - very thin wall - a large surface area

 Sperm - Fertilises an egg cell - female gamete
               - head contains genetic information + enzyme that helps penetrate egg cell
               - the middle is packed with mitochondria for energy
               - the tail moves the sperm to the egg

Red blood cell - contains haemoglobin to carry oxygen to cells
                           - Thin outer membrane to let oxygen diffuse through easily
                           - shape increase surface area to allow more oxygen to be absorbed
                           - no nucleus, whole cell full of haemoglobin

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Diffusion is a process that allows dissolved substances have to pass through the cell membrane to get into or out of a cell. 

Diffusion occurs when particles spread. 

The move from a region of high concentration to a regions of low concentration.

Diffusion happys when particles are free to move.

Particles diffuse down from a high concentration to a low concentration. 

Examples of diffusion

Location      Particles move                 From                     To

Gut                digested food products      gut cavity                 blood in capillary of villus

Lungs           oxygen                               alveolar air space      blood circulating around                                                                                                     the lungs

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Water can move across cell membranes because of osmosis.

For osmosis you need 

  • two solutions with different concentrations
  • a partially permeable membrane to seperate them

Partially permeable membranes let some substances pass through them, but not others.

Osmosis is the movement of water from a LESS concentrated solution to a MORE concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane.

Eventually the level on the more concentrated side of the membrane rises and the less concentrated side falls.
          - When the concentration is the same on both sides, the movement will be the                  same in both directions. When this happens, the net exchange of water iz                    zero and there is no further change in the liquid levels.

Osmosis is important to plants.

  • they gain water by osmosis through their roots
  • water moves into the plant cells by osmosis - making them turgid so that they can hold the plant upright.
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