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Its function is to control the cells activities and it contains the chromosomes.

Its made up of a

Nuclear envelope - A membrane with pores to allow transport of mRNA from the nucleus to  the cytoplasm.

Nucleoplasm - Cytoplasm like material within the nucleus

Chromatin - Found in the nucleoplasm. Its made up of coils of DNA bound to protein. During cell devision  the chromosome condeses to form a visible chromosome

Nucleolus - Manurfactures ribosomal RNA and assembles ribosmes

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Its the main site of aerobic respiration in cells. In rspiration energy is released in the form of ATP.

It has a double membrane with a narrow fluid filled intermembrane space.

The inner membrane is folded inwards to form extensions called cristaes.

Aerobic respiration occurs in the matrix and on the inner membrane

Mitochondria contain their own DNA and divide in response to energy needs of the cell.

Mitochondria are found in large numbers in

  • Muscle cells
  • Liver cells
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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Is an internal system of flattened sacs which are continuous with the nuclear membrane.

Its covered in ribosmes which gives the name and account for their dotted appearences.

They are the site of protein synthesis in cells and also serve as a transport system.

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Smooth endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes

Similar in structure to the RER but has no ribosomes

Its functions include the synthesis of lipids and metabolism of carbohydrates.

Ribosomes made up of one large sub unit and one small sub unit

They are made up of RNA and protein

They are vital for protein synthesis and to allow this process they have a groove between the subunits which mRNA fits into as well a tRNA biding sites

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Golgi body

The golgi is made up of interconnected, flattened,membranous sacs.

The function is to transport products produced by the ribosmes and the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum.

How the golgi forms and release vesicles 

Proteins from the RER are transported in vesicles. The vesicles fuse with golgi membrane and contents are shed into golgi sacs at one end of the golgi. Proteins are built into more complex molecules such as enzymes or glycoprotein. Vesicles containing lysosomes are budded off at the other end of the golgi. Vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane and the contents is released by exocytosis.

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These are single membrane bound vesicles which contains digestive enzymes.

They are produced by the golgi apparatus

They are used to digest materials ingested by phagocytosis

The vesicles of the lysosomes fuses with a cell vacuole and the enzymes from the lysosmes break down the ingested material.

Lysosomes also used to break down worn out organelles

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Centrioles and Vacuoles

Centrioles are found in all animal cells and in more protists but are absent from the cells of higher plants.

At cell division they migrate to opposite poles of the cell where they synthesise the microtubule of the spindles.

A  Vacuole is a fluid filles sac bounded by a single membrane. In animals vacuoles

  • Are small vesicles and may occur in large numbers
  • can be formed by phagocytosis

In plant cells there is usually one large central vacuole and the  single membrane around it is called a tonoplast.The vacuole contains cell sap to maintain turgor pressure and also stores substances.

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Only found in plant cells

They have a double membrane

They have a stroma - a colourless gelatinous matrix containing ribosomes, lipids, its own circular DNA and possibly starch grains.

In the stroma are flattened sacs known as thylakoid. These are stacked to form a granum. Chloroplast are the site of photosynthesis.

Photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll are found within each thylakoid. 

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Cell wall and plasmodesmata

The cell wall is made up of cellulose microfibrils embedd in a polysaccharide matrix

It confers rigidity on plant cells and prevents them from bursting.


The cell wall is interrupted at intervals by narrow pores carrying fine strands of cytoplasm which joins the cytoplasm of the next cell.

Substances can move between cells through the plasmodesmata

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Animal cells

They have :-

  • Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Rough Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Cell wall
  • Nucleolous (nuclear envelope)
  • Mitochondria
  • Golgi body (lysosome and vacuoles)
  • Chromatin
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Plant cells

They have :-

  • Large vacuole
  • Mitochondria
  • Chlorplasts
  • Golgi body (lysosmes)
  • Cell wall
  • cell membrane
  • Nucleolus
  • Rough Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Chromatin 
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