AQA Biology B2 1.1 - B2 2.1

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  • Created by: D
  • Created on: 17-05-10 20:31


Animal and Plant cells have:

  • Ribosomes- where protein synthesis takes place
  • Mitochondria- inside cytoplasm, oxygen is used and energy is released during respiration
  • Cell membrane - controls which substances go in/out of cell
  • Cytoplasm- liquid gel where chemical reactions take place (respiration)
  • Nucleus- controls the cells activities

Plant cells can also have:

  • Permanent Vacuole- filled with cell sap to keep the cells rigid and support the plant
  • Chloroplasts- contain chloropyll which give the leaf it's colour ALSO absorbs light energy for photosynthesis
  • Cell wall - for strength and support
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An enzyme is a protein which controls the rate of a very specific reaction

  • respiration enzymes - found in mitochondria
  • photosynthesis enzymes - found in the chloroplasts
  • protein synthesis enzymes - found on the surface of ribosomes
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Specialised Cells

Stem cells are cells that have NOT specialised

Examples of specialised cells

Fat Cells

  • have very little normal cytoplasm so they have more room for fat
  • have very few mitchondria as they use very little energy
  • can expand x1000 times its original size

Cone Cells - from eye

  • the outer segment is filled with a special chemical called VISUAL PIGMENT which changes chemically in different coloured light
  • the middle segment has lots of mitochondria - producing more energy
  • special nerve ending to connects to the optic nerve
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