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Plant cells

Plant cells contain


  • Cell wall- made of cellulose to give the cell structure
  • Permenant vacuole- filled with cell sap to keep the cell rigid
  • Chloroplasts- Contain chlorophyll to absorb light during photosynthesis 

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animal cells

Animal cells contain:

  • Nucleus- contains genes and controls activity
  • Cytoplasm- where most chemical reactions take place
  • Cell membrane- controls passage of substances into and out of cell
  • Mitochondria- where oxygen is used ad much enerygy released in respiration
  • Ribosomes- where protein synthesis takes place. 


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bacterial and yeast cells


  • Each bacterium is a single cell
  • Genetic material is not contained in a nucleus- lies in loops within the cytoplasm
  • Can contain plasmids (small circular pieces of DNA carrying extra genetic information), slime capsule (outside cell wall) and/or one or more flagellum/flagella (long protein strand that enables the cell to move)
  • Some bacteri cause disease but man are harmless and can be useful. 


  • single celled fungi 
  • Contains nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, vacuole, foodstorage granules and cell wall 
  • Bigger than bacteria
  • Can respire aerobically or anaerobically
  • reproduces by asexual budding  
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specialised cells

Some cells have special features that help them to carry out their functions.

Fat cells- small amount of cytoplasm to make room for fat and few mitochondria as cell does not need much energy 

Cone cells from eye- many mitochondria to provide energy needed by visual pigment, specialised synapse that connects to the optic nerve. 

Root hair cells- increased surfac area to allow water into the cell, large permenant vacuole to speed up movement of water by osmosis. 

Sperm cells- long tail to aid movement, many mitochondria because much enegy is required, large nucleus containing genetics.

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