Cells, Tissues and Organs

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Animal and Plant Cells

Animal Cells:

  • Nucleus: Contains DNA and controls the cell
  • Cell Membrane: Controls what goes in and out of the cell
  • Cytoplasm: Where chemical reactions take place
  • Ribosomes: Synthesize proteins
  • Mitochondria: Release energy

Plant Cells (All of the above and):

  • Cell Wall: A rigid shell to help the cell keep its shape
  • Vacoule: Pushes the middle of the cell 'outwards' to help keep the cell rigid
  • Chloroplasts: Absorb light energy which is used for photosynthesis
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Types of Cells

Prokaryotic Cells:

  • The name for (all of) the group of bacterial cells that are vital to life on earth
  • Always single celled organisms
  • Reproduce by asexual reproduction
  • Much smaller than eukaryotic cells
  • No nucleus or mitochondria

Eukaryotic Cells:

  • The name for all animal and plant cells, algae and fungi
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Specialised Cells // Diffusion

  • Specialised Cell: A cell that has a specific or particular job/ function
  • Differentation: When a normal cell becomes a specialised cell
  • Neurone: Send impulses aroud the body
  • Root Hair cell: Absorb water and nutrients form soil
  • Red Blood Cells: Carries oxygen around the body, contains haemoglobin (attatches to oxygen to transport it) , small to fit through capillaries 


  • Diffusion: The random movement of particles in the air, moving form an area with high concentration to low concentration

Factors affecting Diffusion:

  • Surface area: Volume
  • Diffusion distance
  • Temperature
  • Concentration distance
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Tissues and Organs


  • A group of cells with similar structures and functions working together
  • Muscle tissue can control movement
  • Glandular tissue can produce enzymes and hormones
  • Mesophyll tissue contains chloroplasts


  • Organs are made up of tissues
  • The stomach is an organ containing:
    • Muscle tissue to churn food
    • Glandular tissue to break down food
    • Epithelial tissue which covers the inside and outside of the organ
  • The pancreas makes hormones tht control blood sugar and digest food
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Organs in a Plant:

  • Flower: Reproduce
  • Leaf: Photosynthesis (Absorb light)
  • Root: Absorb water and nutrients, stablises the plant
  • Stem: Carry water to the leaves, supports the plant
  • Fruit: Casing for the seed

Leaf structure:

  • Waxy cuticle: Keeps water out of the leaf, transparent to let light through
  • Epidermis cell: Covers the outside of the organ, transparent to let light through
  • Palisade cells: Contain chloroplasts
  • Spongy Mesophyll: Air spaces so carbon dioxide can diffuse through
  • Stomata: Regulates the amount of water lost from the leaf
  • Vascular bundle: Contains:
    • Xylem: Carries water and minerals from root to leaf
    • Phloem: Carries water and food in both directions
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Leaf Cross-Section


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Yeast Cells // Digestive System

Yeast cells contain:

  • Cell Membrane & Vacuole
  • Nucleus & Cytoplasm
  • Food Storage granule


Digestive System:

  • Pancreas and salivary glands: Produce digestive juices
  • Stomach and Small Intestine: Digestion takes place
  • Liver: Produces bile
  • Small Intestine: Soluble food is absorbed
  • Large intestine: Water is absorbed from undigested food, producing faeces
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