Cells part 1


Animal and Plant cells

1)  animal and plants cells both have: a Nucleus, Mitochondria, Cytoplasm, Ribosomoes, a Cell Membrane

Only plant cells have: a Cell Wall, a Permanent Vacuole, Chloroplasts

2) Nucleus- controls the activitiesmof the cell and contains the gentic material

Cytoplasm- where most of the chemical reactions take place

Cell Membrane-  controls which substances pass in and out of the cell

3) Cell Wall- strengthens the cell (made of cellulose)

Vacuole- supports the plant (filled with sap)

Chloroplasts- absorbs light to photosynthesise (Chlorophyll- turns sunlight into chemical energy)

4) Mitochondria- where aerobic respiration takes place

Ribosomes- where proteins are synthesised

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Bacteria and Yeast Cells

Animal- Nucleus, Cell Membrane, Cytoplasm, Ribosomes, Mitochondria

Plant- Nucleus, Cell Membrane, Cell Wall, Cytoplasm, Chloroplast, Vacuole, Ribosomes, Mitochondria

Bacterial- Cell Membrane, Cell Wall, Cytoplasm, Plasmid, Capsule, Ribosomes, Flagella

Yeast- Nucleus, Cell Membrane, Cell Wall, Cytoplasm, Vacuole, Ribosomes, Mitochondria

All have  Only one has

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Microscopes and Magnification

1) Image= Magnification x Actual Size

2) Light microscopes have a lower resolution and magnification so are used to study living things. However, electron microscopes have ahigher resolution and magnification but cannot be used to view living things

3) 0.0002 mm in standard form is2 × 10-4

4) cm --> mm (multiply by 10)

mm --> cm (divide by 10)

mm --> μm (multiply by 1000)

μm --> mm (divide by 1000)


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Specialised cells

1)  Adaption- features or characteristics of organisms that allow them to live in different environmental conditions                                                                                                                       Function- what an organ, cell, tissue or molecule does

2)  The function of a muscle cell is to contract quickly. The cells have adapted because they long so have lots of space to contract and contain lots of mitochondria to generate the energy needed.

3) The function of a sperm cell is to get the male DNA to the female DNA. It has a long tail and a streamlined head to help it swim to the egg.

4) The funtion of nerve cells is to carry electrical signals from one part of the body to another. These cells are long (to cover more distance) and have branched connections at the ends to connect to other nerve cells.

5) The function of a root hair cell is to absorb water and minerals from the soil to the plant. They have long hairs that stick out into the soil which gives the plant a big surface area to absorb water. 

6) As cells change they develop different subcellular structures and turn into different types of cells. This allows them to carry out specific functions

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More microscopes

5) Animal cells:

  • Put a small drop of water on the slide
  • Gently swab the inside of your mouth with a clean cotton bud
  • Rub the cotton bud onto the drop of water

Plant cells:

  • Put a small drop of water in the slide
  • Peel some onion skin from the inside of an onion
  • Use forceps to transfer the onion to the slide. Make sure it's flat and that there are no bubbles, and then put a drop of iodine stain on the onion
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