• All living things are made of cells.
  • Cells can either be prokaryotic or eukaryotic.
  • Eukaryotic cells are complex and include all animal and plant cells. Prokaryotic cells are smaller and simpler, e.g. bacteria.
  • A prokaryote is a prokaryotic cell (it's a single-celled organism).
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Animal Cell

Different parts of a cell are called subcelluar structures.

Nucleus- contains genetic material that controls the activities of the cell.

Cytoplasm- gel-like substance where most of the chemical reactions happen. It contains enzymes that control these chemical reactions.

Cell membrane- holds the cell together and controls what goes in and out.

Mitochondria- these are where most of the reactions for areobic respiration take place. Respiration transfers energy that the cell need to work.

Ribosomes- these are where the proteins are made in the cell.

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Plant cells

They usually have all the bits an animal cells have, plus a few extra things that they don't have:

Rigid cell wall- made of cellulose. It supports the cell and strengthens it.

Permant vacuole- contains cell sap, a weak solution of sugar and salts.

Chloropasts- these are where photosynthesis occurs, which makes food for the plant. They contain a green substance called chlorophyll, which asorbs the light needed for photosynthesis.

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Bacterial Cells

Bacteria are prokaryotes.

Thye have a cell membrane,a cell wall and cytoplasm. They don't have chloropasts or mitochondria. They also don't have a 'true' nucleus- instead they have a singular circular strand of DNA that floats freely in the cytoplasm. They may also contain one or more small rings of DNA called plasmids.

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