Cell Structure, AS AQA

cell structure help!! :) 

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  • Created by: Kathy
  • Created on: 18-04-11 14:35

Microscopy!

Resolution is the abiloty to see detail! 

Magnification is the ratio between the actual size of the object and the size of the image. 

Magnification = size of the image/actual size (rearrange for different formulars

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Cell ultrastructure

  • fine structure of cells visible with an electron microscope
  • within cytoplasm fibrous structures composed of protiens which form a cytoskeleton.
  • animal and plant cells are EUKARYOTIC as they have a nucleus and organells. 
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(http://www.celldiagram.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/plant-animal-cell-diagram.jpg)

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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)

Features

  • flat sacs of membrane
  • fluid filled
  • surface covered in ribosomes

Functions

  • protein synthesis
  • transport proteins to golgi apparatus. 
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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)

Features:

  • flat sacs
  • fluid filled

Functions:

  • make triglycrides (FATS)
  • make phospholipids
  • Make cholesterol
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Golgi apparatus

Features:

  • flat sacs piled
  • vesicles forming around the edge

Functions:

  • modifies protiens by adding carbohydrates
  • packages protien
  • makes lysosomes
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Mitochondria

Features:

  • formed of 2 membranes surrounding a fluid filled matrix
  • inner memrand folded highly to have greater SA for enzymes of respiration

Functions:

  • aerobic respiration
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Ribosomes

Features:

  • attached to RER or free in cytoplasm
  • made of protiens and RNA

Functions:

  • assembles amino acids to make proteins
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lysosomes

Features:

  • single membrane
  • fluid filled with enzymes

Functions:

  • enzymes destroy worn out parts of the cell
  • and digesting food particles.
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chloroplasts

features:

  • many internal membranes
  • large SA for chlorophyll, enzymes of photosynthesis and other pigments. 

Function:

  • site of reactions of photosynthesis.
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plasma membrane

Function:

  • controles entry and exit of materials
  • retains cenn content.
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nuclear envelope

Features:

  • sacs of fluid 
  • ribosomes on outer surface
  • pores allow substances to pass between cytoplasm and nucleus. 

Function:

  • separates cytoplasm and nucleus.
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Nucleus:

Function:

  • contains genetic information as DNA in chromosomes

Nucleolus:

features: 

  • darkly stained area under LM and EM

functions:

  • produces ribosomes.
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Microfilaments:

features:

  • Made of actin -  type of protein. 

function:

  • provide mechanical support for cells: apart from the cytoskeleton.
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Microtubules:

features:

  • made of tubulin - type of protein formes into hollow tubes

funcions:

  • part of cytoskeleton
  • provides pathways for movement of organelles
  • form cillia, flagella (undulipodia) and centrioles
  • form spindle to move chromosomes during anaphase
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cillia

features:

  • extend from cell surface
  • made from microtubules
  • (9 microtubules and 2 centeral ones)
  • surrounded by plasma membrane

functions:

  • found in large groups
  • move fluid or mucus past cells (trachea)
  • move egg in fallopian tube
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Undullipodia

features:

  •     same as cillia

function:

  • found singly
  • moves actual cell
  • i.e. sperm in animal
  • i.e. mosses and ferns in plants. 
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Centrioles:

features:

  • made of microtubules (9 microtubes and 2 centeral ones)
  • not found in flowering plants

function:

  • assembles the spindle to move chromosomes
  • nuclei division in animal cells
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PROKARYOTES:

  • do not have a nucleus
  • no organelles made of membranes



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similar to eukaryotic cells how?

  • cytoplasm, ribosomes, cell surface membrane

only found in eukaryotic cells

  • nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear envelope, mitochondria, goldi aparatus, chlotoplast, cillia, vacuoles

only found in prokaryotes:

  • ring of DNA

some prokaryotes:

  • smal rings of DNa known as plasmids, capsual, flagellum (not built of microtubules)
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