cell structure

cell structure

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cell structure

nucleus 

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structure- large usually spherical bound by a double membrane with many pores 

function- site where DNA is arranged into chromasomes and responsible for cell division and protein synthesis 

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Nuclear envelope 

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this surrounds the nucleus and is the double membrane 

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rough endoplasmic reticulum 

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it is a extensive membrane system with tubes and cavitys and ribosomes attatched 

it is also the site for protein synthesis 

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smooth endoplasmic reticulum 

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membrane system with small cavities and no ribosomes attached 

it is involved in the synthesis of lipids and found in small patches of cytoplasm 

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golgi appartaus 

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it consists of a stack of membrane bound sacs called cisternae. they are pinched of a golgi vesicles 

it modifies substances made in the cell before they are secreted 

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ribosomes

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very small and are made of one large and one small subunit. present in the cytopalsm or attached to RER 

they are used in proteinsynthesis where condesation reactions join amino acids together 

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mitochondria 

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they are rodd shape, with a smooth outer membrane and folded inner membrane 

they are involved in aerobic respiration and most of the cells ATP is made here

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lysosmes 

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a round organelle with no clear internal structure surrounded by a membrane 

they contain digestive enzymes and are kept seperate from the cytoplasm by the membrane and can digest invading cells or break down worn out compounds 

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chloroplasts

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they are flattened disk bound by 2 membranes and are the site of photosynthesis containing chlorophyll 

they are found in photosynthesising tissue 

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plasma membrane 

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this is a boundary to all cells 

it controls what enters and leaves the cell. proteins attched to the membrane play a part in cell recognition 

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centrioles 

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small hollow cylinders containing microtubles 

these are involved in the seperation of chromasomes during cell division 

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flagella

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stick out from the cell surface and are surrounded by a plasma membrane have 2 microtubles in the middle 

the microtubles contract to allow the flagella to move and propel the cell forward 

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cilia 

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they are small and hair like and found on the surface membrane of animal cells- same microtubles as flagella 

microtubles allow cilia to move, and the movement is used to move substances along the cell surface 

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