Cell Biology

Revision for Topic 1

  • Created by: Noah_S
  • Created on: 07-11-19 19:51

Cells & Microscopy

5 Subcellular structures for Plant & Animal Cells

  • Nucleus
    • Contains genetic material 
  • Mitochondria
    • Converts energy from chemical to kenetic and heat in earobic respiration 
  • Cytoplasm
    • Preforms chemical reactions such as anarobic respiration 
  • Membrane 
    • Provides transportation for the cells and allow substances in 
  • Ribosomes

Three things that Plants Cells have that Animal Cells dont

  • Cell Wall
    • Keeps the structure of the cell together
  • Permanent Vacuole
    • A space to store substinance and nutrition for the cell
  • Chloroplast
    • Provides ability to photosynthesis nutrition for the plant


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Cells & Microscopy

Where is the genetic material found in

  • Animal Cells
    • In the Nucleus
  • Bacterial Cells
    • In the cell as a long strand of DNA

What type of organisms are bacteria - prokaryotes (without nucleus, no mitochondria) or eukaryotes (with nucleus, have a mitochondria)

  • Prokaryotes
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Differentiation and Stem Cells

Why do cells differentiate?

  • It allows the cells to accomplish a specific task to perform a role in order for the organism/creature to work

Give three ways that a sperm cell is adapted for swimming to an egg cell

  • It has a long tail to enable it to swim
  • It has lots of mitochondria to provide energy to swim
  • It has enzymes stored to enable it to get into the egg

Two ways that embryonic stem cells could be used to cure diseases

  • Can be specialised into nerve cells to repair faulty connections 
  • Can be specialised into insulin producing cells to help cure Type 1 Diabetics 

Why might some people be against the use of human embryos in stem cell research

  • Each human embryo is a possible human life, essencially arguing that it kills life
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Cell Division

What are Chromosomes

  • Coiled DNA that provide instructions for how the cell should function

What is the Cell Cycle

  • A natural process of growth and division that cells undergo in a loop

What is mitosis used for by multicellular organisms?

  • Mitosis is used for growth and repair in organisms

What is the name of the process by which bacteria divide

  • Binary fission
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Culturing Microorganisms

What is the maximum tempreature at which microorganisms should be kept at schools

  • 25*C

Give three ways to keep bacteria samples uncontaiminated

  • The inoculating loop should be sterilised first by passing it through a hot flame
  • The petri dishes and culture medium must be sterilised first to kill unwanted bacteria
  • After transferring the bacteria, the lid must be lightly taped on, to prevent bacteria in the air to come through
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Exchanging Substances

What is diffusion?

  • Diffusion is the process of particles spreading out from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration 

Name three substances that can diffuse through a cell membrane 

  • Glucose
  • Amino Acids
  • Water

Name two substances that cannot diffuse through a cell membrane

  • Starch
  • Protein

What type of molecules is transported by osmosis

  • Water molecules
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Exchanging Substances

Give two differences between active transport & diffusion

  • Active transport is from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration while diffusion is the opposite 
  • Diffusion is passive transport (requiring no energy) while active transport requires energy from respiration

Give one way in which alveoli are adapted for gas exchange

  • Have a huge surface area (75m2 in humans)

Give two ways that villi in the small intestines are adapted for absorbing digested food

  • They have a huge surface area to increase absorbsion 
  • They have good blood supply to speed up diffusion 

Explain how leaves are adapted to maximise the amount of CO2 that gets to their cells

  • The flattened shape of the a leaf increases the area of the exchange surface 
  • The air spaces inside the leaf helps the exchange surface inside the leaf, so CO2 can get into the cell
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