- 1933, hitler was made chancellor of germany. He had for major aims;
- To destroy the Treaty of Versailles, re-arm Germany and recover it's lost lands.
- To bring all German speaking people everywhere under german control.
- to expands eastwards in order to gain Lebensraum for the german people
- to destroy the communist USSR.
- He did exactly what he promised to do a decade earlier.
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Hitler over turns the Treaty of Versailles
- As soon as he came to power, Hitler re-armed germany
- 1933 he withdrew germany from the disarmament conference, and the League of Nations.
- 1935 intriduced conscription, arguing that germany needed to defend itself as others armies were increasing too.
- this ran against the Treaty, but no country stopped him.
- in the same yer he signed a naval agreement with Britain, agreeing to only build his navy no bigger than 35 % of that of Britains
- people did not think much of the re-armament, as they mostly thought that the Treaty was too harsh anyway, and they needed a strong germany as a buffer against the communist USSR.
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The Saar, 1935
- The treaty removed industrial areas around the Saar from germany, and given to the League of nations.
- A plebiscite would be held in 15 years, when saarlanders will choose to whom they will belong.
- the date aproached, Nazis mounted a huge campaign to persuade Saarlanders to vote for them.
- Hitler sent stormtroopers to gather arounds its borders, but Britain and France disbanded this with threats.
- January 1935, 90% of saarlanders voted in favour of germany.
- This was the first territorial undoings of the Treaty of Versailles, and was widely celebrated.
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The Rhineland, 1936
- The Rhineland was made a demilitarised zone, but it was still part of Germany, and it was regarded as unjust and humiliating.
- As a direct challenge to the terms of the Treaty, hitler marched 32,000 troops into the Rhineland, while under orders to retreat if any signs of resistance from the French or British.
- However, they did nothing, and he carried on.
- This encouraged him to pursue his aims.
- It was thought as Br and Fr last chance to confront Hitler with out a war.
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Anschluss with austria
- The treaty of Versailles forbade unification with Austria.
- As part of his foreign policy, hitler promised Lebensraum, and unity with Austria would help this succeed, therefore, this term was very much disliked.
- 1936, there was a spanish civil war, where Italy and Germany were asked to help. It brought them closer together, and they signed the Rome-Berlin Axis.
- this was followed by the anti-comintern pact in 1937, signed by Germany, Italy and Japan.
- January 1938Chancellor schuschnigg discovered the austrian nazis had been planning a revolution. He foolishly went to Hitler for help, but he berated him and told him to put Seys-Inquart in a place of power. Schuschnigg ignored him and returned to Austria to organise a plebiscite.
- Fearing they would vote against it, Hitler gathered his troops around the border, threatening to invade, and encouraging the austrian nazis to riot.
- Schuschnigg resigned and Seys-inquart was placed in power.
- 12 march 1938 Germany marched in with triumph. on the 14, unification was established as 99.75% voted yes.
- Mussolini had not interfered due to the Rome-Berlin Axis, and Britain and France were not prepared to go to war over Austria.
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