- Took place in 1899-1902.
- Many signed up.
- 25% of people that signed up were unfit to fight in any war.
- Britain struggling to beat unorganised farmers.
- With Britain losing to small countries, how did the future of them keeping the Empire look?
- The German Army were on the rise.
- Britain had to keep up or risk losing colonies.
- The British population were in no state to fight a war.
- They had fears that they could not defend their colonies against Germany.
"The Boer War left many in Britain with doubts about the quality of the working class male" - Potter.
America and Germany
- By 1908, both America and Germany had overtaken Britain in terms of industrial production.
- Germany now had the industry needed to back a full-scale war.
- Britain now knew they could not defend themselves against Germany.
- Changes had to be made to defend the national security of the nation.
- If Britain wanted to support its empire, it needed the industry to back it.
- Changes had to made to create an industry large enough to back the empire.
"If Britain was to compete and maintain its position as a world power, then it had to be run efficiently" - Murphy
The New Liberals
- From 1908, the Liberals underwent changes in personnel.
- Herbert Asquith - PM.
- David Lloyd George - Chancellor.
- Winston Churchill - President of the Board of Trade.
- They believed they should take more interest in other people's lives.
- No laissez-faire.
- Without new Liberals and new ideas, there would not have been a push for change.
"Liberals underwent a change of emphasis rather than aims"
Rowntree and Booth
- From 1889-1903.
- Seebohm Rowntree investigated poverty in London.
- Charles Booth investigated poverty in York.
- They both aimed to see how many people were impoverished in their respective cities.
- 30% of the population lived below the poverty line.
- It was not the people's fault that they were in poverty. The causes were preventable.
- This showed that with correct help, many people could be lifted above poverty.
"Seebohm Rowntree highlighted unprecedented levels of poverty in different parts of England" - Textbook.
- Around 1900, Kier Hardy created the Labour Party.
- He was a normal working person who wanted a voice for the working class.
- The Liberals would now lose votes if they didn't begin to change thir policies towards the poor.
- The liberals raised local taxes in order to build great things.
- For example, they used Loch Katrine as a reservoir to provide fresh water for Glasgow.
- If these changes benefitted those in a local community and raised living standards, there could have been even greater benefits for the nation as a whole.