- Grievances of the proletariat - low pay, long hours, poor working conditions
- Grievances of the peasants - lack of land - helf back by the Mir
- Russia's autocratic system of government - the Tsar wanted to keep it this way too, even ignoring changes suggested by moderate liberals.
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- Russo-Japanese war (1904-05)
- Humiliation of defeat to little Japan - shows Tsar's government's incompetence
- It intensified Russia's economic problems - created shortages of basic goods at home - led to severe inflation.
- Higher taxes on peasants and proletariat to pay for Russia's industrialisation programme.
- Poor harvests 1900 + 1902.
- Boom in industry of 1890s becomes a slump in early 20th century.
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- Events known as Bloody Sunday in January 1905. This is when the Tsar's forces massacred innocent protesters marching to winter palace to present a petition to Tsar.
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