The Alliance System - 7 points
-Early 19th century, 5 great powers (Britian, France, Austria, Russia and Prussia).
- 1871 Austria became Austria-Hungary, german speaking states joined to form Germany.
-Germany and Austria-Hungary formed strong friendship called Dual Alliance signed 1879.
-1890 New kaiser William 11, behavouir suggested wished for a war.
-France & Russia feared Dual Alliance, 1892-1894 Franco-Russian Alliance.
-Britain tried to ally with Germany who were not intrested, formed friendship with Franmce called 'Entente' Cordiale'.
-1907 Triple Entente formed when Britian befriended Russia.
-By 1907 5 great powers split into 2 groups, any minor war would cause all 5 to become involved.
The Turkish problem - 7 points
-1800 much of South Eastern part of Europe belonged to Turkish Empire.
-By 1900 most of area broken away, new independant states emerged.
-Area called Bosnia still belonged to Turkey.
-The people who lived in Bosnia and Serbia (an independant country) were South Slavs.
-South Slav nationalists wanted Bosnia to break free from Turkey and join Serbia in a new South Slav state.
-1908 Austria-Hungary grabbed Bosnia, caused great upset.
-Meant nationalists had to fight Austria-Hungary not Turkey.
The Arms Race - 5 points
-Industry progressed rapidly: new weapons introduced, better warships, bigger and better guns.
-Each country feared other would have better weapons.
-Rush to improve better armanents (known as arms race).
-In particulkar, rivalry between Germany and Britian to build a powerful, modern navy.
-Britian was always safe due to being surrounded by ocean and having the best navy kept them safe. (Germany would be serious threat to Britian if they had a better navy.)
Imperialism - 3 points
-Important feature in late 19th century.
-This is the building up of great empires as Europe's major powers divided up amongst themselves the less developed parts of the world.
-Rilvary between great powers as they strived to increase the size of their empires.
The German problem - 4 points
-Germany in bad position.
-Main ally Austria-Hungary didn't industrialise, may prove an uneffective ally.
-Germany was right between 2 main enemies, might have to fight on 2 fronts.
-France to the west, Russia in the east.
-Germany's army was thought to be the best in Europe, Germany feared when Russia industrialised they would be become to much to handle.
The Schlieffen Plan - 6 points
-Germans solution to problems.
-To avoid a 2 front war, Germany would throw their entire army at France and hope for a quick victory.
-Germany would avoid the guarded Franco-German border and go through Belgium to attack northern France.
-It would take Russia's army many weeks to be ready to fight.
-Germany would have to defeat France before moving the army to the east (To fight Russia).
-Speed was important for it to work, meaning Germany wouldn't have time to see if peace could be saved (they would attack first).