NEEDS OF THE USSR
- After 1964, Brezhnev made some changes to Khrushchevs policies and Peaceful Coexistence continued.
- National interests guided Foreign Policy, which led to Detente.
- USSR had an advantage - USA looked weak after the Vietnam War.
- Detente would mean there could be Arms Limitations agreements for the USSR to catch up, but the USA had newer technology.
- USSR wanted Western Recognition for influence over the Eastern Bloc.
- Romania's independant foreign policy, the Czechslovakia Crisis in 1968, and strikes in Poland were signds that the Soviet Union's hold needed strengthening.
- USSR didn't want USA involved in the Sino-Soviet split.
- The Polit-Bureau were facing serious economic problems and needed to divert money from the Military Sector to improve living standards and get comsumer goods.
- Improved relations would gain them access to Western Technology and grain.
- The eigth of the five year plans - they made deals with Renault and Fiat to import new technology into the USSR.
NEEDS OF THE USA
- The Vietnam highlighted that the USA had limited power, and led to economic problems.
- Europe became more independant (e.g. France left NATO in 1966).
- Detente allowed USA to keep foriegn interest without military intervention.
- Nixon and Kissinger were very anti-communist.
- Social reform suffered because of military spending - JFK's 'New Frontier' and LBJ's 'Great Society' were sacraficed, this led to riots. Detente allowed the USA to focus on Welfare spending and gaining international influence.
FEARS OF WAR
- The Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) highlighted the dangers of superpower confrontation - it could result in nuclear warfare.
- JFK's threat to use US missiles during the crisis, caused anxiety across the world.
- By 1969, the Superpowers had enough nuclear weapons to destroy each other several times over.
- The need to reduce the risk of nuclear warfare caused Detente.
EUROPEAN NEEDS AND OSTPOLITIK
- By 1968, there was evidence of instability on both sides of the Iron Curtain (e.g. USSR invasion of Czechoslovakia and large scale strikes on France).
- Brandt - the leader of West Germany - took a lead in developing links across the border.
- Opening up channels between the East and West in Europe aided the move towards Detente. It encouraged other countries to develop links (e.g. France and Romania).