= the sense of belonging to an area of the same genetic character or similar personalities. A common reason for conflict with identity is due to the level of dependence that each group has. Withtin identity, there are 3 main types...
1) Nationalism = devotion and loyalty to a certain country. For example Scottish Nationalism.
2) Regionalism = loyalty to a distinct region. For example the Mouvement Region Savoie in France, where Savoie and Haute Savoie want to join as a larger political region.
3) Localism = an affection for a place. Often, residents show characteristics of Nimbyism- "not in my back yard". For example the Newbury Bypass which many locals opposed due to its environmental impacts.
= grouping of people according to ethnic origins. To begin with this was based almost entirely on race, but now it has expanded to include religion, language and culture. Conflicts due to ethnicity many be as one group think they are superior.
For example - In Rwanda in 1994 there was a genocide in which around 300,000 people died over a 100 day period. This conflict broke out between the Hutus and the Tutsis who are the main two ethnicities in the country. Throughout history there has been tensions between these two ethnic groups, Hutus who outnumbered the Tutsis by 8:1, were oppressed by the perceived superior Tutsis. This tension built up until in the 1950s the Hutus overthrew the Tutsis. The genocide of 1994, was seen as a final "extermination" of tutsis.
= a set of customary beliefs/ norms of an area. conflict normally arises when different cultures do not understand eachother.
For example- Whale meat is a Japanese delicacy but by many other cultures this is viewed as an act against nature as whales are endangered mammals.
= set of concepts about how society should be. Some people's ideologies may be extreme and may try to force their ideas upon others, leading to conflict.
For example - North Korea is a authoritarian government whereas South Korea is a democratic government.
Also- World War 2 for example could be classed as a conflict over ideologies as the Allies didn't agree with Hitler's ideologies.
WATER - likely to see an increase in conflicts over water in future years as water becomes more scarce with climate change. For example - The River Nile is a water source for 10 countries in Africa. Those downstream (Egypt) use the most water whereas countries upstream (Rwanda) want to use more.
OIL= this is a particular source of conflict in Western Asia as these countries hold a lot of oil reserves and their economies are very reliant on oil. Example - Norway and Russia have had conflict over polar oil rights for over 40 years. Recently they decided to split the arctic circle up into zones for each country.
BUILDINGS - normally if they are of importance to more than one group. For example - The Dome of Rock in Jerusalem was built by Muslims but was Jewish temple in the 7th century. Therefore it has religious importance to both groups. Currently, non-muslims have little access to the Dome of Rock.
TERRITORY = geographical area belonging to a country. Normally conflict arises over who should own the area. For example - in 1982 Argentina and UK fought a war over the ownership of the Falkland islands.