Causes and Crises of Cold War

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Why did USA/ USSR disagree over ideologies?

Commusim: fairness, equality, poverty, enslave. 

Capitalist: freedom & choice, divided society, rich/ poor system


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What were the key features of the three conference

Teheran: Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin. Spheres of influence.

YaltanRoosevelt, Churchill, Stalin. Russia helped America. Roosevelt shared Germany. Declartion of liberated Europe.


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Causes & Effects of Truman Doctrine.

Causes: European devastation, peoples lives were hard (poverty, umemployment, homeless) after WW2 makes communism (sharng all wealth) attractive.

What was it? Plan was to 'CONTAIN' communism & stop it from spreading- using troops & ecomonic resources.

Effects: Marshall Plan ($13 billion injected aid), if European countries agreed they had to trade with the USA.  

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Causes & Effects of Cominform.

Causes: Stalin worried about his satellite being tempted by the Marshall Plan and he needed a plan to keep his sphere togther and under control, following his orders. Marshall plan/ Truman Doctrine.

 Effects: Ensured loyalty by removing those who were not loyal to Stalin and who disagreed with communism. He used the Stasi to stamp out opposition.Removed all opposition. Control through fear & force.

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Causes & Effects of Comecon.

Causes: Stalin worried about his satellite being tempted by Marshall Plan, he needed a way to keep his 'sphere' togther and following his orders and not accepting Marshall Plan; this was his alternative.

Effects: Pollitically splilt Eastern from the West, ensuring Americ had little influence. Economically, it ensured that the benefits of any recovery in Eastern Europe benefitted the USSR, Eastern could not access prosperity of Western Europe. All statelitte states rejected Marsahll Aid.

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Causes & Effects of Berlin Blockade/ Airlift.

Causes: Stalins fear at USA/UK/France permently splitting Germany ;eaving him with the poor Eastern section. Truman started using a new consitiustion (laws), currency ( the Deutschmark) and a new Government (national assembly); looking like a new country & worrying Stalin even more.

Effects: Stalin looked highly agressive, whilst America's responce looked peaceful & heroic. Diaster for USSR. Stalin ends blockade in May 1949. Germany split into two: Federal Republic of Germany (FGR west) & the German Democratic Republic (GDR east). Creation of NATO & the Warsaw Plan.

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Causes & Effects of Hungarian Uprising

Causes: Terriable living conditions/ quality of life (wheat & coal shipped to USSR = starving). Could only vote for commuist leaders. Matyas Rakosi ('Bald Butcher') a brutal dictator who controlled Hungary using (coninform) ended up with thousands in Jail. Khrushchev makes a secret speech saying Stalins ways was over 'Distalination' things would be better- Riots, Khrushchev replaces Rakosi with Nargy. Nargy proposed radical reforms- leave Warsaw Pact, no more communism, democracy rising alliance with USA. Krushchev is scared if Hungry are able to leave the Warsaw Pact other countries will follow.

Effects: Sovient troops invade Hungary. 200,000 troops & execution of Nargy. Hungary returned to being a satelitte state: Dictator Janos Kadar. Signs is point program- returns control to USSR. World learns that the USA will not support using miltary due to causing a war. They will only provide money. 

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Causes & Effects of Berlin Crisis.

Causes: Refugee Crisis

Effects: War was avoide- Khrushchev solved the refugee crisis & looked strong in the eyes of the world. The wall became a symbol of the cold war- Kennedy the USA used it to say communim trapped people: they preffered capitalism.

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Causes & Effects of Cuban Missile Crisis.

Causes: Cuban Revolution: Fidel Castro took power in Cuba, he nationalised American companies. In response American stopped all aid and all imports of Cuban sugar; as it was Cubas main source of income. Cuba instead sold sugar to USSR and he then became a communist.Bay of Pigs:USA wanted to overthrow Castro. JFK trained Cuban refugees/ revoloutionaries to start a revolution. The Attack was a diaster; the Cuban people supported Castro. Castro then asked for more help off the USSR.

Effects: Image given to the world:Khrushchev looked weak and was forced from power. Kennedy however looked strong- as if he had won the Cuban missile crisis; Nobody knew about Turkey. Detente: Tensions relax, leads to some positive agreements: Hotline agreement & Limited Test Ban Treaty (banning testing of weapons except underground).

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Causes & Effects of Prague Spring

CausesCzechoslovakia was brutually run by the secreat police and the economy was stuggling. The leader Novotny was highly unpopular, so Dubcek took over. Prague Spring is used to describe the changes Dubcek made: relaxing censorship, legalising opposition & adding some capitalsim to the economy. 

EffectsDubcek's reforms were massivley popular. Students/ artists started to criticise communism. Older communists & Brezhney though were horrified. Brezhnev had no choice but to order a full invasion. Justified the invasion with the Brezhnev Doctrine, which said that the USSR had the right to invade any country in it's sphere whose actions threatned the Warsaw Pact. Dubcek was arrested & was taken to Moscow where he was forced to sign the Moscow Protocol, commiting the Cz government to 'protect' socialsim by re-introducing censorship and removing opposition. 

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